Communism is a political ideology that started gaining momentum in the 1920s. It was a champion for the East and had started to encroach on the West as it started to become popular amongst the lower class. To deal with such a broad and intangible threat, the Western powers (mainly America) built a negative and dangerous aura around it and used it to garner public support for themselves. This narrative building was done through securitization of the term and can be visualized in the public speeches of American Presidents of the Cold War era.
The author, Hafsa Ammar, employs Johan Galtung’s ABC triangle and Raimo Vayrynen’s conflict transformation model to understand the transition of Mozambique following its civil war. The civil war on Mozambique presents a unique case study as it was a low-intensity, drawn-out war which lead to the maximization of damage over 16 years of sustained violence.
In 2017, Russia introduced an amendment to the Russian Criminal Code, decriminalizing domestic violence. Russian law, along with the Russian orthodox tradition of considering domestic abuse an “internal family matter,” has led many women to lose faith in justice and abandon all hope. The author, Hafsa Ammar, argues that during the pandemic, while the rest of the world passed laws to ensure the safety of women trapped in abusive environments, Russia had done the opposite. The situation in Russia has prevented women from even reporting cases of domestic abuse, leading the government to make claims of a decrease in violent cases.