The violence, discrimination, and prejudice against Muslims in the contemporary era is the continuation of the rivalry between the East and the West since the times of the Crusades. The author notes that the prejudice against Muslims can be traced back to medieval and crusader literature. She explains that crusader orientalism and the politicization of literature by the elite sowed the seeds of this biasness, by regarding Muslims as “infidels”, “black pagans”, “sub-humans”, “polluters of the Christian church”, and “aggressive”. Furthermore, the use of literature and art as a tool for manipulation has ensured the persistence of Islamophobia in the 21st century.
Nadia Khan Satti
Nadia Khan Satti is currently pursuing her bachelor's in international relations from Quaid-e-Azam University. The author's inclination is towards the ongoing political changes in international politics. She also writes about the international political economy and diplomacy through the perspective of the First and Third World countries.