The nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan has led to both states attaining a second strike capability. To be capable of a second strike, India has developed a nuclear-powered submarine equipped with ballistic missiles (SSBN) – the INS Arihant. In response, Pakistan introduced the Babur 3 missile, which is a submarine-launched cruise missile, and declared its second strike capability. While analyzing the credibility of the second strikes of India and Pakistan, the author, Rauf Khalid, notes that there is an asymmetry between them.
Mr. Rauf Khalid is a student at National Defense University, Islamabad. He is currently pursuing a bachelor's degree in strategic studies. He has been a research intern at SASSI University. His areas of interest include traditional and non-traditional security issues, national security, the threat perception of Pakistan, and international politics, specifically of East Asia, South Asia, and the Middle East. He can be contacted at Rkcheema001@gmail.com