Published Content

All of Paradigm Shift’s published content (articles and research papers) can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

A Peaceful Afghanistan: The Interest of Pakistan, China, & the Region

Written by Muhammad Saad, Eman Anjum, Jizza Babar and M. Shaheer Khattak 11:47 am

Over the years, the state of Afghanistan has experienced terrorism, drug trafficking, human rights abuse, political turmoil, geostrategic and geo-economic tussle, and societal deterioration. The instability in the state has impacted Pakistan, China, Iran, Turkey, and the Central Asian Republics as well. The authors, Muhammad Saad, Eman Anjum, Jizza Babar, and M. Shaheer Khattak, note that for their own interests, these regional states seek a peaceful Afghanistan, the establishment of which is not an easy task. For this reason, they have made efforts to stabilize and develop the war-torn state.
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The OIC Conference on the Humanitarian Crisis in Afghanistan

Written by Mairaj ul Hamid Nasri 12:12 pm

A little over a month has passed since Pakistan organized the 17th extraordinary session of the OIC Council of Foreign Ministers, but Afghanistan’s situation shows no signs of optimism. The author, Mairaj ul Hamid Nasri, gives a summary of the deliberations and the commitments made at the meeting.
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Analyzing Pakistan’s Second Strike Capability: Pakistan’s Babur 3 vs India’s INS Arihant

Written by Rauf Khalid 11:47 am

The nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan has led to both states attaining a second strike capability. To be capable of a second strike, India has developed a nuclear-powered submarine equipped with ballistic missiles (SSBN) – the INS Arihant. In response, Pakistan introduced the Babur 3 missile, which is a submarine-launched cruise missile, and declared its second strike capability. While analyzing the credibility of the second strikes of India and Pakistan, the author, Rauf Khalid, notes that there is an asymmetry between them.
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A Book Review of ‘Why Nations Fail’

Written by Zuha Tiwana 11:47 am

‘Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty’ attempts to depict the global situation that has left more than 5 billion people living in abject poverty to earn less than $2 a day. Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson provide answers to such disparities. The book had been a great point of discussion back in 2012 among political scientists, institutional theorists, and development economists.
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The Cycle of Nepotism & Protests in Kazakhstan

Written by Mahrukh Khalid Siddiqui 11:47 am

Soaring fuel prices and rising inflation have resulted in mass protests in Kazakhstan. These protests have dominated Almaty, the nation’s largest city, calling for the dismissal of Nursultan Nazarbayev. Now that Nazarbayev has been removed, will President Tokayev allow Kazakhstan to embrace political liberalization?
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An End in the Korean War: A True Possibility or a Pipe Dream?

Written by Hammad Khan 11:47 am

Though the Korean War concluded with the 1953 armistice, there has been no formal declaration of an end to the war in the last 70 years. As such, both North and South Korea are still, technically, at war. The author, Hammad Khan, notes that the current South Korean president, Moon Jae-in, has been quite resilient in his approach to officially end this war. While the parties involved in the conflict – North and South Korea, the US, and China – have agreed in principle to end it, the US has some reservations which have made it reluctant to accept a peace agreement.
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The War in Yemen: How It Began & Who Are the Houthis?

Written by Saira Javaid Cheema 11:47 am

The war in Yemen – a conflict between the Houthis and the Hadi regime, involving several international actors – has turned the state into the largest humanitarian crisis of the contemporary era. Around 80% of the Yemeni population is in need of humanitarian assistance. To understand how Yemen came to this point, the author, Saira Javaid Cheema, provides a background of the war in Yemen and explains who the Houthis are. She argues that since Saudi Arabia’s King Salman took the throne in 2015, the civil war in Yemen has worsened.
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The Mercurial Relationship Between China and North Korea

Written by Mahrukh Khalid Siddiqui and Saira Javaid Cheema 12:30 pm

Many take the Sino-North Korean friendship as an established fact, but there are more undertones to this alliance than meets the eye. Infamously dubbed as the ‘Lips and Teeth’ alliance, the People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea had a cautious beginning — and now an uncertain future.
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Questioning the Role of the United Nations (UN)

Written by Muhammad Hayat Lak 12:12 pm

This research paper aims to evaluate the role of the United Nations Organization in light of some of the most highlighted events in its history, ranging from Rwanda to Kashmir; the crises mentioned will be summarized and analyzed to provide the reader with only the relevant information which is consistent with the central theme of this paper. In addition to this, the paper will also shed light upon the effectiveness of the UN when it comes to dealing with the world’s superpowers. A brief part of this paper will scrutinize the role of the International Court of Justice from a legal point of view, covering its overall structure and the extent to which its decisions are binding on the member Nations.
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Efficient Laws & Systems for Domestic Violence in Dubai: Where Did Pakistan Go Wrong?

Written by Mahrukh Khalid Siddiqui 12:19 pm

The legal measures and reporting mechanisms for domestic violence in Dubai are functional. That is in stark contrast to Pakistani systems that counter domestic violence. To ensure safety for the victims, Pakistan, too, must adopt Dubai’s best practices in confronting domestic abuse.
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From Persecution to Open Calls for Muslim Genocide in India

Written by Mahrukh Khalid Siddiqui 12:01 pm

Is India’s democracy buckling under the weight of its endless anti-Muslim hate speech? Gandhi really did not wish for his beloved state to become what it is now — a secular state that inspires antipathy to its Muslim citizens. Hindutva or Hindu nationalism has recently sparked calls for Muslim genocide, distancing the notion of democracy in India.
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The Enactment of the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act by the US

Written by Palwasha Khan 11:47 am

Signed into law on 23rd December 2021, the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act will prevent US businesses and consumers from becoming complicit in human rights violations. The Act will radically reorient the US’s foreign policy with China, as it will presume that goods made wholly or in part in the Xinjiang region are a result of forced labor and hence the onus to disprove that presumption will be on the importer.
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Alternatives to Egypt’s Suez Canal: Russia’s Northern Sea Route & Israel’s Ben-Gurion Canal

Written by Alyan Waheed and Muskan Moazzam 11:47 am

In March 2021, a container ship called “Ever Given” blocked Egypt’s Suez Canal for six days. On one hand, the blockage of the canal cost the world around $10 billion in trade each day, while on the other hand, it provided Russia and Israel with the perfect opportunity to garner support for their respective sea route projects. The authors, Alyan Waheed and Muskan Moazzam, note that Russia’s Northern Sea Route (NSR) and Israel’s Ben-Gurion Canal can act as alternatives to the Suez Canal and reduce the international community’s dependency on it. As such, to prevent states from opting for these routes, Egypt will have to make several changes – one of them is lowering the trade barriers.
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Myanmar’s Shadow Government: In the Name of Democracy

Written by Mahrukh Khalid Siddiqui 12:00 pm

Composed of the opposition, the shadow government provides feedback and criticism on the policies supported by the ruling party. Myanmar has witnessed completely distinct shadow governments—from the military junta to the NLD—throughout its history. Even now, there is a shadow government; the National Unity Government is one that is displaying its resistance to the military rule of the country.
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Blood And Oil: Mohammed bin Salman’s Ruthless Quest for Global Power (Book Review)

Written by Lyba Mobeen and Maria Mehboob 11:47 am

In “Blood And Oil: Mohammed bin Salman’s Ruthless Quest for Global Power”, Bradley Hope and Justin Scheck tell the story of how Saudi Arabia’s Mohammed bin Salman rose to the position of the crown prince. The book provides a glimpse of the future Saudi king’s thought process, his vision for his country, and his approach towards the people he considers a threat to his plans and power.
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How to Avoid a Climate Disaster by Bill Gates (Book Review)

Written by Aimen Ayaz 11:47 am

In his book, How to Avoid A Climate Disaster, Bill Gates expresses his concerns about the overwhelming climate change, beckoning readers to urge policies around net-zero emissions. He also provides readers with a list of ways that they can individually contribute to such an end—which is more than just turning off the tap while you brush your teeth.
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Peace Talks with the Pakistani Taliban (TTP): Then vs Now

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

Tehreek-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), formulated in 2007, is one of the deadliest terrorist groups in Pakistan. It has carried out massive attacks against Pakistan’s security forces and also targeted civilians. As a result of its actions, Pakistan has lost thousands of lives. The author, Muhammad Hamza Tanvir, notes that although Pakistan has tried to negotiate with the TTP on several occasions and even signed peace agreements, all of its efforts have failed. He explains that while the state favors a peace deal with the TTP, many analysts believe that this move will prove damaging for the country.
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