Published Content

All of Paradigm Shift’s published content (articles and research papers) can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

How MNCs Are Destroying the Foreign Exchange Reserves in Pakistan

Written by Mir Mohammad Alikhan 11:47 am

The writer, Mir Mohammad Alikhan, reflects on the cause of plunging foreign reserves in Pakistan. Is it because of businesses’ proclivity for imports, like many believe it to be? That truly isn’t the case. Multinational corporations are actually the ones sending shock waves to the foreign reserves by importing a considerable amount of raw materials for their products and then selling them at prohibitive prices. Naturally, huge profits are made, which are declared as dividends before being converted into dollars and sent abroad to a parent company.
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Is Judicial Activism Undermining the Justice System in Pakistan?

Written by Asfand Yar Katchela 12:12 pm

Judicial activism can be defined as the exercise of legislative and judicial functions by the judicial branch, thereby compromising the doctrine of the separation of powers. One thing is for certain: judicial activism has not gone unnoticed by the people of Pakistan. Judicial activism in its very nature is pervasive and inequitable. The author, Asfand Yar Katchela, presents a compelling argument for restraining judicial activism by giving reference to significant case laws and the findings of his own survey.
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Will Saudi Arabia and Israel Normalize Relations?: Understanding the Arab Peace Initiative

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

On the condition that Israel will implement the 2002 Arab Peace Initiative, Saudi Arabia has expressed its willingness to improve its relations with Israel. The initiative proposes a two-state solution for the Palestine issue and an end to the Israeli illegal annexation of the territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The author, Muhammad Hamza Tanvir, notes that although an alliance between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Israel would be beneficial for them, the condition imposed by the kingdom is not pragmatic for Israel, even more so after the change in its leadership.
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The Gruesome Assassination of Jamal Khashoggi

Written by Palwasha Khan 11:47 am

In 2018, the world witnessed the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi – a Saudi-born Washington Post columnist known for his criticism of Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammad Bin Salman – in the Saudi consulate in Turkey. The author, Palwasha Khan, explains that Saudi Arabia had used an assassination squad to eliminate Khashoggi. Though Saudi Arabia denied its involvement in the murder, America’s Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) affirmed that the journalist was killed on the crown prince’s orders. Moreover, the death of Khashoggi sparked a diplomatic crisis between Saudi Arabia and several of its closest allies, including the US.
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A Book Review of ‘Night Letters: Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and the Afghan Islamists Who Changed the World’

Written by Asadullah Khan Wazir 11:47 am

In their book, Night Letters, Chris Sands and Fazelminallah Qazizai venture together into the historical depths of Afghanistan. They relate a fair account of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and his political ambitions, notably the Islamic Movement.
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Pakistan in 2021: A Tumultuous Year

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 6:20 pm

2021 was truly an unpredictable year for Pakistan. The country saw turbulence in the political realm with protests by the Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM), and dharnas by various other entities. The country’s economic woes only intensified as it failed to exit the FATF grey list. On the bright side, Pakistan’s athletes were given the due spotlight at several games this year, particularly at the Tokyo Olympics. Take a look at some of the major developments that took place in Pakistan in 2021.
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The Diplomatic Boycott of the 2022 Beijing Olympics

Written by Hammad Khan 12:00 pm

February is nearing and so are the 2022 Beijing Olympics. The US’s boycott of the Games has motivated many states – Australia, Canada, and the UK to name a few – to follow suit. China hasn’t taken kindly to these political ploys and in fact has warned countries of the price that they will pay for boycotting the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing.
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Can Pakistan’s EVMs Survive Cyber Attacks?

Written by Taaha Rauf 11:47 am

The Cambridge Analytica scandal, the disclosure of the Pegasus spyware, and the hacking of Pakistan’s Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) have made the vulnerable nature of cyberspace abundantly clear. The author, Taaha Rauf, notes that Pakistan’s decision to use electronic voting machines (EVMs), in the 2023 general elections, comes with the ever-increasing threat of cyber attacks. He explains that since the US, Australia, and Canada, already employ technology for several purposes in their elections, they have undertaken measures to ensure their cybersecurity and election integrity. For Pakistan to do the same, he makes certain recommendations.
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Nine Famous Straits of the World: Exploring Trade Routes

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

This article describes some of the most important straits of the world. Straits are narrow stretches of water that serve as significant strategic and trade routes. As almost 80 percent of the world’s trade is carried over the waves, these straits provide navigable routes to various ships thus playing a critical role in the trade of the world.
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The Hypocrisy of Democracy in America: From Military Interventions to the Recent Summit

Written by Alyan Waheed and Muskan Moazzam 11:47 am

Though America considers itself the true representative of democracy, its actions prove otherwise. The hypocritical nature of the United States is apparent from its propensity to get militarily involved in other states, like Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq, in the name of promoting democracy. The authors argue that contrary to establishing a democratic regime, the US military interventions have worsened the instability in these states. Moreover, the US itself is a dysfunctional democracy and even the Summit for Democracy can be seen as an effort to divide the world and preserve the US hegemony.
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A Short Essay on the Energy Crisis of Pakistan

Written by Ayesha Zafar 12:00 pm

Power outages and high electricity bills have become commonplace in Pakistan. Although the government’s poor planning and management are to blame for this predicament, it seems, according to a European think tank, that the World Bank is the main culprit behind the country’s energy crisis. The author, Ayesha Zafar, explains how the World Bank’s three power projects — PACE, SHIFT, and IGCEP — are destabilising Pakistan’s energy plans.
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Pakistan’s Debt & the $3 Billion Saudi Loan

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has granted a loan of $3 billion to Pakistan. The state is obligated to return the loan after a year, however, Saudi Arabia can ask for repayment on a three-day notice anytime within that one year. In addition, Pakistan will have to pay $120 million in interest on the loan and Saudi law would be applicable in case of any dispute. The author, Muhammad Hamza Tanvir, explains that since the IMF has restricted Pakistan from borrowing from the State Bank of Pakistan, the economic condition of Pakistan is likely to take a toll. At such a crucial time, Pakistan cannot afford to offend any of its allies, namely China.
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Nationalism in International Relations: Tracing the Roots of Xenophobia

Written by Mahrukh Khalid Siddiqui 12:13 pm

Nationalism captures the important yet equally detrimental—if manifested unwisely—unity that is triggered from the loyalty and dedication towards one’s homeland. To the author, Mahrukh Khalid Siddiqui, xenophobia and discrimination are viewed as the by-products of classical nationalism. Discriminatory actions are fueled by presumptions, prejudice, lack of knowledge, and stereotypes.
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Implementing the Chinese Economic Model in Turkey

Written by Necati Demircan 11:47 am

President Erdogan is seeking to incorporate the Chinese economic model in Turkey. As such, Turkey will abandon high-interest rates and turn to production and exports. Opposing parties have cited this proposal to be unquestionably authoritarian. The author, Necati Demircan, explores Turkey’s abandonment of the neoliberal economic model and the new slogan of production in the country’s orientation towards Asia.
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Pakistan-Turkey Relations: A Harmonious Partnership

Written by Muhammad Abdullah 11:47 am

After Pakistan became an independent state in 1947, Turkey was one of the first states to recognize it. The two states are bound together by cultural and religious links. The author, Muhammad Abdullah, notes that throughout the years, they’ve cooperated and shown support for each other on several fronts. When Pakistan was hit with a devastating earthquake in 2005, Turkey sent millions of dollars in aid to Pakistan. Similarly, after the Van earthquake of 2011, Pakistan’s Red Crescent Aid Society donated $100,000 to the people of the Van province in eastern Turkey.
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The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP): Strategic Interests & Economic Recovery

Written by Saira Javaid Cheema 11:58 am

The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a free trade deal and has a total of 15 member states from the ASEAN, East Asia, and Oceania. It is considered to be the world’s largest trade bloc with respect to the combined GDP of the member states. The author, Saira Javaid Cheema, discusses both the opportunities and threats that the RCEP holds for member states and non-member states.
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The Non-democratic yet Democratic State Led by the Communist Party of China

Written by Muskan Moazzam and Alyan Waheed 11:47 am

Though China considers itself to be a “socialist democracy”, it is not a democratic state in the eyes of the West. The authors, Alyan Waheed and Muskan Moazzam, note that while the West is busy contemplating the state of democracy in China, it has failed to realize that despite being “non-democratic”, China is a better leader, and more beneficial for the international community, under the control of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). As per their argument, the CCP has ensured that the nationalist element in the Chinese does not become overpowering and that China remains a pragmatic and rational status quo power.
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