Over the years, the state of Afghanistan has experienced terrorism, drug trafficking, human rights abuse, political turmoil, geostrategic and geo-economic tussle, and societal deterioration. The instability in the state has impacted Pakistan, China, Iran, Turkey, and the Central Asian Republics as well. The authors, Muhammad Saad, Eman Anjum, Jizza Babar, and M. Shaheer Khattak, note that for their own interests, these regional states seek a peaceful Afghanistan, the establishment of which is not an easy task. For this reason, they have made efforts to stabilize and develop the war-torn state.
In March 2021, a container ship called “Ever Given” blocked Egypt’s Suez Canal for six days. On one hand, the blockage of the canal cost the world around $10 billion in trade each day, while on the other hand, it provided Russia and Israel with the perfect opportunity to garner support for their respective sea route projects. The authors, Alyan Waheed and Muskan Moazzam, note that Russia’s Northern Sea Route (NSR) and Israel’s Ben-Gurion Canal can act as alternatives to the Suez Canal and reduce the international community’s dependency on it. As such, to prevent states from opting for these routes, Egypt will have to make several changes – one of them is lowering the trade barriers.
President Erdogan is seeking to incorporate the Chinese economic model in Turkey. As such, Turkey will abandon high-interest rates and turn to production and exports. Opposing parties have cited this proposal to be unquestionably authoritarian. The author, Necati Demircan, explores Turkey’s abandonment of the neoliberal economic model and the new slogan of production in the country’s orientation towards Asia.
Contentious politics is the use of confrontational and unconventional tactics against political authorities to make a social or political point. Such advocacy has transformed the national political landscape in Canada since the announcement of the White Paper policy. The author, Hurain Sheikh, addresses the definition of contentious politics, the use of social movements and protests in Canada and its contributions to indigenous peoples, especially during the “Idle No More” movement.
The main aim of this study is to look at the current global status of poverty and existing practices to alleviate it. Global actors have launched many strategies in the past three decades to help nations in reducing poverty. The author, Zaryab Fatima, highlights a continuous rise of global politics of poverty alleviation. The results of her study clearly show that poverty reduction strategies and approaches are probably going to be entwined with standard monetary arrangements based on principles of equity rather than equality.
China has exhibited a deep interest in developing the Gwadar Port of Pakistan, under the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), for the enhancement of its strategic and economic benefits, while India is investing in the Chabahar Port under the tripartite Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) with Iran and Afghanistan, with the drive to counter China’s growing presence in the region. Both ports are situated at the international energy trading route and provide connectivity to different regions of the world including Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe. Such equalizing behavior of both states is not just causing problems for them but also for the neighboring states such as Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan, in this regard, which are the key stakeholders in the construction of these ports. The authors, Ms. Kinza Shah and Mehwish Kayani, look into the geostrategic and geo-economic importance of both ports. This paper also explores the stances given by the major states of the world over the construction of Chabahar and Gwadar ports in accordance with their national interests and ties with the major stakeholders of both the ports i.e. India. Iran, China and Pakistan.
Although the two consecutive financial crises of 2000 and 2001 shook Turkey’s economy to the core, they also paved the way for major economic reform. Against that backdrop, the author, Nimra Dawood, reflects on the remarkable economic development witnessed in Turkey shortly after the financial crises.
In a world motivated by soft power, states steer and adapt their foreign policies according to the evolving nature of global affairs. Central Asian states are no exception to this reality, especially since they are motivated by geostrategic and geoeconomic interests. The shifting world order presents both interests and risks, and hence they must carefully design their foreign policies – and hedge their bets. Image credits: U.S. Department of State | Flickr
The research paper focuses primarily on the different phases of diplomatic relations between Iran and Israel – two strategic states of the Middle East. The author highlights the strategic role of Russia as a mediator between the two states to show how in order to pursue their national interests, states play out their part in international politics with direct bearing on other states at the national and international level.
Being one of the longest conflicts in the Middle East, the Israel-Palestine conflict has remained in the eye of the international media. The author notes that the news coverage of the conflict has never been neutral. Through an analysis of the news coverage of the BBC, The New York Times, The Times of India, and Al-Jazeera, she reveals how misrepresentation, framing, linguistic determinism, and media manipulation can be observed in the news coverage of the Israel-Palestine conflict. While this media manipulation has benefited them and served their interests, it has impacted how the audience of specific media outlets views the conflict.
To incorporate the Middle East in its sphere of influence, the United States has either directly or indirectly intervened in the Middle East. The author notes that America’s foreign policy in the Middle East included meddling in the political affairs of many countries in the region, and installing and assisting in radicalization and sectarianism just for its own geostrategic and economic interests. This approach, along with the Israel-Iran rivalry and the Shia-Sunni rivalry between Saudi Arabia and Iran, has prevented peace from being established in the region. Ultimately, the Middle East has turned into a battleground for sectarian conflicts, proxy wars, and instability.
The ongoing civil war in Yemen has aggravated the plight of Yemeni children. Despite the state being a signatory of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the government of Yemen has completely failed to preserve the basic rights of the children. The humanitarian crisis in Yemen has put the physical and mental health of an entire generation at stake. The author, Farhan Ijaz, notes that the warring parties have committed grave human rights violations, deprived the children of their right to an education, and forced them to take up arms. Furthermore, due to the war, the number of internally displaced children, the outbreaks of infectious diseases, child marriages, and child labor in Yemen have increased at an unprecedented rate.
It’s been 26 years since the Bosnian War stole the lives of about 250,000 Bosniaks and displaced around 2.5 million people. The perpetrators of the Srebrenica Genocide were the Bosnian Serbs and Yugoslavs, aided by the international community’s passivity. The author reports the events that took place and the actors involved in the horrendous Bosnian Genocide.
Technology has played an important role in shaping international politics. During the Cold War, both superpowers, that is, the Soviet Union and the United States were involved in the strategic rivalry and the arms race, with both trying to undermine the other’s defense capabilities. Russia has built many surface-to-air batteries and has now developed highly advanced missile defense systems such as the S-400 missile defense system. During the 2018 summit in New Delhi, India signed a deal with Russia for 5 units of the Russian S-400 defense system which, the author believes, can negatively affect the strategic stability of South Asia.
On 3rd January 2020, the United States killed top Iranian general Qasem Soleimani. The assassination of Soleimani is attributed to the historic rivalry between Iran and the US, the US agenda to lower the influence of Iran in the region, and Trump’s aggressive and dominant personality. His assassination has a huge impact not only on the politics and relations between Iran and the US but also in the region. This research paper seeks to find the reason for the US’s assassination of Qasem Soleimani.
This article is aimed at explaining the fractured relationship between China and the United States during Trump’s term in office. The author explores different conflicts of this era which include the trade war and the 5G race, among others. The future of Sino-US relations depends on how respective administrations will steer the conflict.
The Syrian Arab Republic has a complicated stratification of ethnic groups, and strict constitutional boundaries for voting, the nomination of political parties, and elections. Equally confusing is the distribution of power, with the presidential autonomous structure of the political system. This system serves as an example of one of the most complex and intricate forms of democracy in the world, leading to a lack of options for any new political stakeholders to gain power. Keeping that complexity in sight, this paper identifies and analyses the contemporary political challenges that are being faced by the political system in Syria.