What started off as protests against the authoritarian regime of Bashar al-Assad in 2011, has turned into a decade-long war involving international and domestic actors. The author, Amna Shaukat, applies the conflict tree model to explain the deep-rooted causes of the conflict and the effects of this war on the people of the state. Since the war first broke out, almost 400,000 Syrians have lost their lives while millions have been displaced—internally and externally. It has left Syria devastated in every way. The economy itself will take years to recover, but that too, requires the war to end.
Somalia has been in a constant state of civil war since the 1980s. Today, almost 3 million people require assistance in Somalia. The influence and conflicting interests of Ethiopia, Al-Shabaab, and the state’s warlords have prevented the establishment of peace in the African state. As a result of this conflict, attacks against civilians, violence against women and girls, corruption, and unemployment have become increasingly prevalent. The author notes that with the current peace process impeded and a pandemic threatening the state, the situation in Somalia is likely to worsen, if not addressed timely.