Pakistan’s past choices — the creation of Pakistan itself; the decision to join the American bloc; the decision to wage the war on terror; and choosing China as an ally — have defined its present status. Although these choices have been deemed appropriate, the mismanagement resulted in an economic downturn and an impairment of its diplomatic ability.
Although Pak-Russia relations have been marked by distrust and suspicion in the past, ties between the two states seem to be positively changing due to diplomatic visits and joint exercises. The recent visit of the Russian Foreign Minister to Pakistan and the mutual stance on the Afghan peace process have emboldened ties between the two nations. These bilateral relations have enormous potential in the areas of defence, mining, energy, tourism, among others.
The implications of the world systems theory, proposed by Immanuel Wallerstein, can be seen in the influence of the coronavirus on the economy of each state affected by the virus. The author asserts that while the virus has heavily impacted the rich core states, they are still better off as compared to the developing and underdeveloped states. She explains that the pandemic has made the North-South divide even more apparent; it has made it clear that the world cannot have a unified economy.
At the center of the interests of major powers lies Central Asia, a region rich with untapped energy resources and economic markets. The author explains that while the region has immense potential for transnational and international cooperation, the security challenges and instability it faces, make it difficult for the Central Asian states to develop. Furthermore, the continuing instability has made foreign interventions almost necessary for these states.
Turkey, formerly the Ottoman Empire, is said to have a foreign policy dictated by neo-Ottomanism, mainly by those who support the West. The author argues that neo-Ottomanism is incompatible with Turkey’s current foreign policies, and instead cites Eurasianism as the idea behind Turkey’s foreign policies.
The seas and oceans are the great highways and sea zones are considered to be the new war zones because of the increasing significance of Sea Lines of Communication (SLOCs). China’s increasing maritime interests in the Indian Ocean and the strategies opted by China to gain that command on the sea, especially in the Indian Ocean are creating a security paradox and competition in the Indian Ocean mainly because of the strategic connotation of important choke points.
The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue is an informal security alliance aimed at creating a rule-based order in the Asia Pacific region. The Japanese Prime Minister at the Confluence of the Two Seas gave the idea of Security Diamond that would ensure the interests of like-minded countries. The Quad states – Australia, India, Japan, and the United States – have a common threat perception in the region that led to the revival of Quad after ten years of long hiatus.
After two decades of war in Afghanistan, the time has finally come for the US to withdraw its forces. While the Doha Agreement paved the way for the US to extricate itself, its implementation will be based on the US interests defined by the Biden administration. Regardless of that, it is necessary for the US to withdraw its forces so that the war-torn state can learn to rely on itself.
The new strategic partnership between China and Iran will not only enhance Sino-Iran relations but also transform the geopolitical structure of Asia. This partnership will seek to develop Iran’s economy and infrastructure; it will also enable China to buy oil from Iran at discounted prices. India and the United States, however, view this blossoming relationship negatively.
The Eurasian Economic Union is an organization that is composed of some of the former members of the Soviet Union. Its influence in Central Asia is believed to have been Russia’s calculated scheme to regain its control and influence in the region. However, both China and the United States are seeking to build their footprints in Central Asia.
The paper explores the Chinese and Russian relations in the context of Central Asia as well as the possibility of future cooperation.
In the current world order, the region of Asia-Pacific has emerged as the central playing field for China and the United States. The shifting balance of power in the region has caused new alliances to form, and new threats to surface.
Uighur Muslims in China are subjected to harsh atrocities and persecution in order to bring them closer to a Chinese identity.
China’s global supremacy can be attributed to its model of governance. Chinese governance has been found to be sustainable in its management and administration.
As the Indian Ocean offers multitudinous benefits, both China and India compete against each other to gain absolute control over the ocean, and ultimately over the region.
To become a superpower, a state must have massive economic and military assets. The United States, however, is impervious to China’s supremacy and will continue to reject, by all means, the superpower status of China — the war between China and the U.S. is a testament to China’s growing powers.
China’s grand Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is influencing foreign policies, taking the world by storm. It is also urging Pakistan, its close ally, to assume a principal position in the Muslim world.