International Relations

The Second Chechen War: Seizing Chechnya

Written by Amna Walistan 1:43 pm

The Khasav-Yurt Accord of 1996 didn’t last long and was followed by another bloody war between the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the Russian Federation. Known as the Second Chechen War (or the second Chechen campaign), this war of independence resurfaced in August 1999 and continued for another ten years till April 2009. The bloody encounter led to thousands of deaths, and granted significant autonomy to Chechnya.
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The Foreign Policy of India: Mirroring the Strategies of Chanakya Kautilya

Written by Ayeza Areej 3:43 pm

To Ayeza Areej—and many others—the strategies of Chanakya Kautilya, an astute strategist of his time, seem to be reflected in India’s foreign policy. From Kautilya’s Arthashastra, an ancient Indian treatise, readers, too, might find there to be a strong resemblance between the two.
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Postmodernism in International Relations

Written by Maryam Yasmeen 7:40 pm

Critical in nature and identified as a cultural movement against modernism, postmodernism rejects universal and definite truths, challenging reason itself. It views existence to be fragmented and irregular while condemning science and technology. Maryam Yasmeen unravels this complex theory and its application to the discipline of international relations.
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The Geopolitical Importance of the Suez Canal

Written by Summaiyya Qureshi 12:47 pm

Summaiyya Qureshi explores the geopolitical importance of the Suez Canal, a widely used route in the marine commercial business that reduces trade costs significantly. The Suez Canal plays a vital role in linking the Mediterranean and Red Seas, making it simpler to export and import commodities from Asian countries to European and African countries, and vice versa.
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Remembering the First Chechen War

Written by Amna Walistan 7:49 pm

The first Chechen War (i.e. the Russian-Chechen War) was fought between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria over the control of Chechnya. Also known as the first Chechen campaign, this war of independence started at the end of 1994 and continued till August 1996. The bloody encounter resulted in thousands of deaths and led to the de facto liberation of Chechnya from Russia.
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Operation Noble Anvil: NATO Bombing of Yugoslavia

Written by Abrish Nayyar 1:02 pm

Operation Allied Force (or Operation Noble Anvil), was the aerial bombing campaign that NATO conducted against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War. The bombing began on March 24th, 1999, and continued for nearly 5 months until August 1999. The NATO airstrikes were in response to the Serbian forces’ attempt at ethnic cleansing of the Kosovar Albanians; the cause of which was an ingrained resentment of Kosovo’s autonomy and ability to work against Serbian interests.
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David vs Goliath: The Epic Military Mismatch Between Palestine and Israel

Written by Sarmad Ishfaq 7:00 pm

While the mainstream media is cognizant of the military discrepancy between Israel and the Palestinians, the consequences of this discrepancy are almost never commented on.
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The Controversial Oil Deal Between Pakistan and Russia

Written by Amna Asif 7:11 pm

The Ukraine-Russian war has completely altered the global economic landscape. Prices of energy have rampantly increased, embargoes have been placed upon Russia, and chaos has erupted across the world. Amidst these turbulent times, Pakistan’s economy is maybe suffering the most. To keep its foreign reserves from falling further, Pakistan must seek out discounted energy imports. A deal with Russia would most certainly be welcomed as a respite for the energy-strapped nation.
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Fall of the Berlin Wall: A Landmark in European History

Written by Ayesha Javaid 7:31 pm

The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 was celebrated exuberantly with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 by the free world. Ayesha Javaid reveals what caused the Berlin Wall to be built, and between its construction and eventual dismantling, the key events that occurred.
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Applying Lederach’s Conflict Transformation to the Israel-Palestine Issue

Written by Asra Zahid 8:00 pm

John Paul Lederach’s concept of conflict transformation provides a set of lenses through which one can draw attention to specific aspects of a conflict, and bring the overall meaning of a conflict into sharper focus. Asra Zahid applies the model to the Israel-Palestine situation, with each of the three points of inquiry of the model bringing a specific aspect of conflict into focus.
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The Convoluted Role of MNCs in Global Politics

Written by Hamra Tariq 12:00 pm

The global economy is significantly shaped by multinational corporations (MNCs). Studies have revealed that MNCs exhibit political influence on foreign policy-making in addition to their economic activities. Hamra Tariq discusses how MNCs can now directly influence foreign policy, and even make an impact on the bilateral relations between various countries.
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Operation Condor: US Interference in Latin America

Written by Maryam Yasmeen 9:01 pm

Maryam Yasmeen provides a comprehensive description of the Latin American post-war political culture. Latin America is a region with a history of constant foreign interference, particularly by the US. For instance, the US’s Operation Condor aimed to install military dictatorships in eight Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, among others.
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China-Nicaragua Relations: Reaffirming the One China Policy

Written by Kashaf Imran 2:02 pm

China and Nicaragua (a state in Central America) first established diplomatic relations in 1985, but those were severed in 1990 after Nicaragua’s recognition of Taiwan. In 2021, Nicaragua cut ties with Taiwan and pivoted to China, reaffirming the One China policy. The reopening of the Chinese Embassy in Nicaragua is a landmark diplomatic switch in the bilateral relations between the two.
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Understanding the Regional Security Complex Theory in South Asia

Written by Asra Zahid 5:27 pm

The regional security complex theory (RSCT) is primarily based on the notion of security dynamics and regional models. According to Barry Buzan and Ole Waver, most threats travel more easily over short distances than over long ones, and security interdependence is normally patterned into regionally based clusters. Asra Zahid analyzes South Asia through the lens of the regional security complex theory at four levels: local, regional, interregional, and global.
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Saudi Arabia-Iran Conflict: Threats & Consequences

Written by Amna Asif 7:48 pm

While Saudi Arabia and Iran have always been caught in a power struggle, recent events have emboldened them to retaliate against each other. Amna Asif notes that there are several issues that prevent the two countries from coming to a consensus and aligning themselves with each other. They span the whole gamut of issues from religion to Western alliances.
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Will the Growing China-New Zealand Relations Sideline the US?

Written by Asra Zahid 8:13 pm

Some believe that PM Jacinda Ardern’s visit to the US indicates the inclination of New Zealand towards the US instead of China. However financial interests between China and New Zealand indicate otherwise. Since signing the China-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement in 2008, China has become New Zealand’s top financial collaborator, with goods and services exports reaching a whopping $21.5 billion in 2021.
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Popular Conspiracy Theories About the September 11 Attacks

Written by Abrish Nayyar 12:23 pm

On September 11, 2001, just hours after the attacks, the first 9/11 conspiracy theories surfaced online. Since then, especially with the emergence of social media, they have grown in size and scope. These conspiracy theories have continued to circulate and reached a much broader audience as a result of the emergence of new conspiracy movements online. For instance, QAnon adherents hold the conspiracy theory that the US “deep state” was behind the attacks, among other conspiratorial viewpoints.
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