International Relations

Why US Invaded Iraq: How Bush Destroyed a Nation

Written by Maryam Yasmeen 11:50 am

George W. Bush’s statement on May 19th, 2022 has once again brought the destruction of Iraq into the spotlight. For many, the former president’s remarks are his admission of guilt for the horrors and injustice caused by his decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Maryam Yasmeen examines the 2003 Iraq war and explains how the decision of one man led to the fall of an entire state.
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Pakistan’s Israel Conundrum

Written by Afifa Iqbal 12:03 pm

While there have allegedly been quite a few secret meetings between the state officials of Pakistan and Israel in the past, the recent public visit of the Pakistani delegation to Israel has raised a lot of questions about whether Pakistan will recognize the state. Afifa Iqbal discusses the events that led to this meeting, and how it would be unwise to attempt to normalise ties with Israel without considering Pakistan’s national interests.
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Private Military Companies (PMCs) & How They Get Away with Murder

Written by Adam Abass 11:48 am

In modern warfare, the role of private military companies (PMCs) has significantly increased. The world’s major powers, in particular, are keen on employing PMCs in conflict zones. The author, Adam Abass, notes that the strong ties between these companies and states have allowed the former to evade prosecution or sentences for their alleged war crimes and human rights abuses.
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Understanding the Kashmir Conflict Through Realism

Written by Haleema Bhatti 12:28 pm

The Kashmir conflict started between India and Pakistan after the Maharaja of Kashmir Hari Singh acceded to India – despite it being a Muslim majority area. This research aims to study the history of the Kashmir conflict and the policies adopted by India and Pakistan from a realist perspective. Haleema Bhatti believes that for national interests and state survival, both states have tried their best to maximise their power and dominance in the region.
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A War of Attrition: The Taliban vs ISIS-K

Written by Hania Amaad 5:51 pm

What is the relationship between the Taliban and ISIS? Are they allies or dissimilar enemies? Hania Amaad details the formation and outlook of the ISIS-K and its interactions with the Taliban.
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New World Order: The Rise of Far-Right Populism

Written by Zunaira Malik 12:23 pm

A sudden surge in the right-wing political groups centered around white supremacist ideologies, is leading to democracy being undermined all over the world. Zunaira Malik observes the veiled origins and the swift rise of these groups, and the myriad of themes within far-right politics.
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The Evolution of US Ammunition and Arms

Written by Muhammad Azam Khan 11:49 am

Muhammad Azam Khan correlates the rise of America and its ammunition export to other countries. He explains the evolution of America’s arms sales and draws connections on how America bolstered its economy after recessions through increasing ordnance factories.
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The Unbalanced Foreign Policy of Pakistan

Written by M. Shaheer Khattak 12:28 pm

Lacking a judicious and effective foreign policy, Pakistan has always struggled against an unprecedented combination of challenges related to external relations. M. Shaheer Khattak walks us through Pakistan’s foreign relations with Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, India, Afghanistan, and the United States.
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Pakistan and America – Relations Strained by US Involvement

Written by Iqra Mumtaz 6:08 pm

Since Pakistan’s independence in 1947, America has maintained a continuous presence in the state’s political affairs. Iqra Mumtaz notes that throughout the history of Pakistan-US relations, the US’s policies towards Pakistan have revolved around engagement, containment, and the “carrots or sticks” approach. Yet, the American support of subservient regimes in Pakistan has remained constant.
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Eco-socialism Explained

Written by Maryam Yasmeen 6:21 pm

Due to the increasing number of ecological disasters, capitalism is now facing stiffer resistance from the green leftists, primarily the supporters of eco-socialism. The ecological socialists are now raising their voices, demanding a radical shift in the economic attitudes and a change in the system to counter climate change. The author, Maryam Yasmeen, explains the origin of eco-socialism and its importance through a critique of the free market economies.
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The French Revolution of 1789

Written by Asma Chaudhry 11:47 am

In this article, Asma Chaudhry explores the events that led to the French Revolution of 1789, the fall of the monarchy in France, and the emergence of Napoleon Bonaparte as the Emperor of France.
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Kim Jong Un of North Korea: 10 Years in Power

Written by Alsa Nishat Ahmad 7:15 pm

15th April 2022 marked an auspicious day in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. In 2012, Kim Jong Un became the head of state (also known as the “Supreme Leader” i.e. the head of the Workers Party, the state, and the military) after the passing of his father, Kim Jong-il. In this article, Alsa Nishat Ahmad analyzes the current Supreme Leader’s eventful 10-year regime.
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AI Usage and Its Scope in Pakistan

Written by Zainish Abbas 6:00 pm

In a world moving towards artificial intelligence (AI), Pakistan is lagging behind. Several businesses, companies, and brands – including Nike – all across the world have incorporated AI in their operations. Though Pakistan is making progress in the realm of AI, the author, Zainish Abbas, suggests that the state needs to introduce AI systems in its medicine and journalism fields as well.
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Digging Up the History of Saudi Arabia

Written by Mohammad Mudasar Laghari 11:47 am

In this very detailed and clear piece, Mohammad Mudasar Laghari connects the past and present of Saudi Arabia, a kingdom shrouded in mysteries. Discover the origins of the name of the Kingdom, the roots of Wahhabism, the finding of oil, and the army of flies, among others.
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Modi’s India & Hindutva-related Communal Violence

Written by Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan 6:34 pm

Communal violence in India has significantly increased since Narendra Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party came to power in 2014. The rise in violence against Indian Muslims, in particular, can be attributed to the BJP’s promotion of Hindutva and its support for the creation of a Hindu-dominated state. The author, Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan, notes that the Modi regime’s implementation of the Citizenship Amendment Act and the revocation of Article 370 are a representation of its anti-Muslim policies. He argues that while Pakistan has condemned India’s human rights abuses, the US has remained silent to maintain its economic ties with India.
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Communism: The Constructed ‘Red Scare’

Written by Hafsa Ammar 12:10 pm

Communism is a political ideology that started gaining momentum in the 1920s. It was a champion for the East and had started to encroach on the West as it started to become popular amongst the lower class. To deal with such a broad and intangible threat, the Western powers (mainly America) built a negative and dangerous aura around it and used it to garner public support for themselves. This narrative building was done through securitization of the term and can be visualized in the public speeches of American Presidents of the Cold War era.
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48th Session of the OIC: The Islamabad Declaration & the Organization’s Failures

Written by Summaiyya Qureshi 11:55 am

Since its establishment in 1969, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) has tried to portray itself as a strong international actor promoting peace, cooperation, solidarity, and harmony between Muslim states. In March 2022, the OIC member states gathered in Pakistan for the 48th Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers and adopted the Islamabad Declaration. The author, Summaiyya Qureshi, argues that despite the numerous resolutions passed by the OIC over the years, the organization has been largely ineffective. She traces the causes of the OIC’s failure and describes, some of the resolutions incorporated in the Islamabad Declaration.
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