George W. Bush’s statement on May 19th, 2022 has once again brought the destruction of Iraq into the spotlight. For many, the former president’s remarks are his admission of guilt for the horrors and injustice caused by his decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Maryam Yasmeen examines the 2003 Iraq war and explains how the decision of one man led to the fall of an entire state.
While there have allegedly been quite a few secret meetings between the state officials of Pakistan and Israel in the past, the recent public visit of the Pakistani delegation to Israel has raised a lot of questions about whether Pakistan will recognize the state. Afifa Iqbal discusses the events that led to this meeting, and how it would be unwise to attempt to normalise ties with Israel without considering Pakistan’s national interests.
In modern warfare, the role of private military companies (PMCs) has significantly increased. The world’s major powers, in particular, are keen on employing PMCs in conflict zones. The author, Adam Abass, notes that the strong ties between these companies and states have allowed the former to evade prosecution or sentences for their alleged war crimes and human rights abuses.
The Kashmir conflict started between India and Pakistan after the Maharaja of Kashmir Hari Singh acceded to India – despite it being a Muslim majority area. This research aims to study the history of the Kashmir conflict and the policies adopted by India and Pakistan from a realist perspective. Haleema Bhatti believes that for national interests and state survival, both states have tried their best to maximise their power and dominance in the region.
What is the relationship between the Taliban and ISIS? Are they allies or dissimilar enemies? Hania Amaad details the formation and outlook of the ISIS-K and its interactions with the Taliban.
A sudden surge in the right-wing political groups centered around white supremacist ideologies, is leading to democracy being undermined all over the world. Zunaira Malik observes the veiled origins and the swift rise of these groups, and the myriad of themes within far-right politics.
Muhammad Azam Khan correlates the rise of America and its ammunition export to other countries. He explains the evolution of America’s arms sales and draws connections on how America bolstered its economy after recessions through increasing ordnance factories.
Lacking a judicious and effective foreign policy, Pakistan has always struggled against an unprecedented combination of challenges related to external relations. M. Shaheer Khattak walks us through Pakistan’s foreign relations with Saudi Arabia, Iran, China, India, Afghanistan, and the United States.
Since Pakistan’s independence in 1947, America has maintained a continuous presence in the state’s political affairs. Iqra Mumtaz notes that throughout the history of Pakistan-US relations, the US’s policies towards Pakistan have revolved around engagement, containment, and the “carrots or sticks” approach. Yet, the American support of subservient regimes in Pakistan has remained constant.
In this article, Asma Chaudhry explores the events that led to the French Revolution of 1789, the fall of the monarchy in France, and the emergence of Napoleon Bonaparte as the Emperor of France.
15th April 2022 marked an auspicious day in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. In 2012, Kim Jong Un became the head of state (also known as the “Supreme Leader” i.e. the head of the Workers Party, the state, and the military) after the passing of his father, Kim Jong-il. In this article, Alsa Nishat Ahmad analyzes the current Supreme Leader’s eventful 10-year regime.
In a world moving towards artificial intelligence (AI), Pakistan is lagging behind. Several businesses, companies, and brands – including Nike – all across the world have incorporated AI in their operations. Though Pakistan is making progress in the realm of AI, the author, Zainish Abbas, suggests that the state needs to introduce AI systems in its medicine and journalism fields as well.
In this very detailed and clear piece, Mohammad Mudasar Laghari connects the past and present of Saudi Arabia, a kingdom shrouded in mysteries. Discover the origins of the name of the Kingdom, the roots of Wahhabism, the finding of oil, and the army of flies, among others.
Communal violence in India has significantly increased since Narendra Modi’s Bharatiya Janata Party came to power in 2014. The rise in violence against Indian Muslims, in particular, can be attributed to the BJP’s promotion of Hindutva and its support for the creation of a Hindu-dominated state. The author, Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan, notes that the Modi regime’s implementation of the Citizenship Amendment Act and the revocation of Article 370 are a representation of its anti-Muslim policies. He argues that while Pakistan has condemned India’s human rights abuses, the US has remained silent to maintain its economic ties with India.
Communism is a political ideology that started gaining momentum in the 1920s. It was a champion for the East and had started to encroach on the West as it started to become popular amongst the lower class. To deal with such a broad and intangible threat, the Western powers (mainly America) built a negative and dangerous aura around it and used it to garner public support for themselves. This narrative building was done through securitization of the term and can be visualized in the public speeches of American Presidents of the Cold War era.
Since its establishment in 1969, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) has tried to portray itself as a strong international actor promoting peace, cooperation, solidarity, and harmony between Muslim states. In March 2022, the OIC member states gathered in Pakistan for the 48th Session of the Council of Foreign Ministers and adopted the Islamabad Declaration. The author, Summaiyya Qureshi, argues that despite the numerous resolutions passed by the OIC over the years, the organization has been largely ineffective. She traces the causes of the OIC’s failure and describes, some of the resolutions incorporated in the Islamabad Declaration.