International Relations

The Indian Media about Pakistan: A Pandemic of Fake News

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

The Indian media’s acquaintance with fake news is not something new. The EU Disinfo Lab reports that in the last 15 years, India has resurrected dead people, NGOs, and 750 media outlets and impersonated EU institutions just to spread false information and news about its rivals and Pakistan. The author notes that the Indian media’s warmongering style of reporting fake news about Pakistan, after the Pulwama attack and the recent Taliban takeover in Afghanistan, has not gone unnoticed by the international community. The author asserts that contrary to India’s intentions, this fake news propaganda has now revealed the state’s true identity and disturbed the peace and stability of South Asia.
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Turkey’s Foreign Policy Towards the Caucasus & the Black Sea

Written by Muhammad Bilal Farooq 11:47 am

The Ottoman Empire lost its control over the Black Sea after the conclusion of the 6th Russo-Turkish War. However, the Black Sea continues to hold great economic and geostrategic importance for Turkey, as the Turkish Straits serve as the only pathway connecting other nations to the Black Sea. The author, Muhammad Bilal Farooq, also expores the dynamic interaction between Turkey and the nations in the Caucasus.
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The Protests in Cuba (2021): Causes and Implications

Written by Damiya Saghir 11:48 am

Since the Cuban revolution in 1959, the relations between the US and Cuba have undergone various degrees of tension. The US sanctions on Cuba, food shortages, a failing economy, and the rising cases of COVID-19 have created a sense of dissatisfaction and urgency. Together, these factors have compelled the Cubans to initiate nationwide protests demanding reforms. The author argues that with the US turning a blind eye to the protests, and the United Nations’ failure to help the Cubans, the people of the state are left with no one to rely on.
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From the American Invasion of Afghanistan to Taliban 2.0

Written by Zainab Riaz 6:00 pm

The article portrays an educated yet comprehensive outlook of the Afghanistan conundrum. The author gives an insight into the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, the formation – and inefficiency – of the Afghan Army, the ultimate reclamation of Kabul by the Taliban, and their 2.0 version.
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The Relationship Between America and China Under the Biden Administration

Written by Muhammad Abubaker 12:19 pm

After Trump, the US looks to Biden for directing and navigating its foreign policy towards China. The revival of Quad and the US’s insistence on the investigation of COVID-19’s origins, among others, display that the Biden administration is more direct and forceful when it comes to countering China.
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Civil War in Afghanistan: A Consequence of the American Exit?

Written by Mairaj ul Hamid Nasri 5:47 pm

The US withdrawal from Afghanistan left the state in a vulnerable and unstable condition. The author notes that with the Afghan Taliban now in power, the possibility of a civil war erupting in the state is relatively high. This war will force the neighboring states and the regional powers to, once again, get involved in Afghanistan. The author argues that this situation could have been avoided had the US fulfilled its responsibility under jus post bellum and upheld its moral, ethical, democratic, and international humanitarian principles. Instead, the US withdrawal has only reminded the world of the US exit in the Vietnam War.
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The Singapore Model Explained & Lessons for Pakistan

Written by Afifa Iqbal 11:47 am

Since its independence in 1965, Singapore has come a long way. Now, it ranks as the 5th largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) worldwide. The state is also renowned for its high living standards, public administration, and commendable infrastructure. The author notes that the “economic miracle” has achieved this by letting go of its colonial baggage, reforming its education curriculum and public sector, and successfully establishing a national identity without assimilating its multi-ethnic population. The author asserts that while Pakistan’s identity and geopolitical issues are more complex than that of Singapore, the Singaporean model can still provide the state with lessons in nation-building and identity construction.
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The Economy of Pakistan & the Possible Impact of the Taliban Government

Written by Nimra Dawood 11:46 am

The Taliban takeover in Afghanistan has significant implications for the regional actors, particularly for Pakistan. The author notes that the fall of Kabul could negatively influence the economy of Pakistan. She asserts that with the border between the two states open, the possibility of Pakistan facing another refugee crisis, a drug trafficking problem, and terrorism, has also increased. These issues will ultimately cause the economic growth of Pakistan – which improved by 3.94% in 2021 – to decline and undermine the progress of the developmental projects in the state.
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The Taliban Leadership vs ISKP in Afghanistan: A Cause of Concern?

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:48 am

With the international community scrutinizing every move made by the Taliban government, they have decided to portray a softer approach w.r.t. women/human rights.The author notes that while the Taliban are busy trying to seek international recognition, the group’s rival faction, the Islamic State of Khurasan Province (ISKP), can use this as an opportunity to recruit ground-level Taliban soldiers. The rise of ISKP—an offshoot of ISIS—not only presents a challenge to the authority of the Taliban regime but also to the regional stability of South Asia. It could eventually result in the amplification of terrorist activities in the region.
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The Taliban Government in Afghanistan: Implications for Pakistan, China, India, Russia & Iran

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 3:19 pm

The conclusion of the war in Afghanistan played out in the Taliban’s favour. With the Taliban now in power and forming the government, their alliances, which the author noted in his previous piece, will rearrange the geopolitical landscape of the region while also determining the fate of the global powers. Featured image credits: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pakistan
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Russian Relations with the US Post-Cold War

Written by Mahnoor Nafees 11:47 am

After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, the newly formed Russia, under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin, pursued democratic policies which led to somewhat cordial US-Russia relations. The author notes that while the two states cooperated on matters of regional security and nuclear proliferation, both exhibited a strong distrust in each other. Russia viewed the US denial of its sphere of influence and the American adventurism with suspicion and pursued hardline policies under Vladimir Putin. The author explains that despite Putin’s assertive stance, Russia has continued to build cordial relations with its neighboring states and the West. However, this cooperation ends when the American and Russian interests clash.
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Pakistan-Uzbekistan Relations: Bilateral Trade & Cooperation

Written by Mahnoor Nafees 12:27 pm

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan emerged as an independent state, and was determined to stabilize itself by way of assuming a market-centered economic system. The Pak-Uzbek relations are bound by a shared religious and cultural background. Trade agreements and joint railway projects can strengthen the ties between the two countries, and may pave the way for an even stronger relationship in thee future.
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The Russia-Ukraine Conflict Over Crimea: A Constructivism Approach

Written by Muskan Moazzam 12:17 pm

Crimea had been a supplier of heavy raw material to the Soviet Union and was a hub of industrial and agricultural resources. Ukraine wanted to partner with the EU and the US in expanding its international market, but Russia saw the US-Ukraine Crimean gas collaboration as a threat to its economy – and hence advanced its forces to annex Crimea. Ms Muskan Moazzam explains the differing actions of EU member states towards the Russia-Ukraine conflict in light of the constructivism theory. She holds that state behaviour is subject to change, depending on the actions and importance of the concerned states. Featured Image Credit: “Former home of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet (2005-08-110)” by Argenberg is licensed under CC BY 2.0.
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How India’s Investment in Afghanistan Has Failed Post-US Exit

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

In the last two decades, India has invested $3 billion in Afghanistan on infrastructure development. Through numerous projects, it has not only maintained its presence in the state but also backed the former Afghan government of Ashraf Ghani. The recent takeover of the Taliban in Afghanistan has placed India in a tight spot and sent years of Indian investment down the drain. India’s blatant anti-Taliban policy has made it difficult for it to maintain good relations with Afghanistan and sponsor terrorism in Pakistan through the Afghan soil. Moreover, the possible emergence of a new regional bloc—comprising of China, Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran—after the Taliban takeover has further threatened India’s influence in the region.
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How the Taliban Came to Power: Tribal Islam vs. Settled Islam

Written by Uzair Bin Farid 11:47 am

On 15th August, 2021, the Taliban claimed victory over the US, the Afghan government, and the country’s national forces. The author explains the reasons behind this victory by drawing a parallel between the main actors and the concepts of Tribal Islam and Settled Islam. The Taliban, according to the author, follow Tribal Islam, one that was initially practiced by the tribal peoples of North Africa. The Afghan government represents Settled Islam, which was established by the runaway caliph Abd-ur-Rehman in Andalusia (present-day Spain). Those following Settled Islam lack ‘Asabiyyah’ – solidarity, responsibility, and social cohesion – which is a sustained feature in Tribal Islam.
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State-sponsored Terrorism in the Syrian War

Written by Asadullah Khan Wazir 11:47 am

In the past decade, Syria’s stability and economy have plummeted to the ground. Terrorism is rampant in the failed state, with the regime of Bashar al-Assad itself perpetrating violence against the civilian population and destroying the state’s infrastructure. Asadullah Khan Wazir, a broadcast journalist, notes that through the use of state-sponsored terrorism, the Syrian regime aims to prevent the population from supporting the rebel groups and offering an alternative regime. As a result, 83,500 civilians have been killed by Bashar al-Assad’s regime and its allies since the Syrian war first started.
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The Challenges of Online Education in Pakistan

Written by Deepak Lal 11:47 am

Although online schooling ensures the continuation of students’ education, it brings numerous challenges with it for the students, parents, and educational institutions. The effects of online education are even worse in the Third World or developing states. The author notes that the lack of digital infrastructure, poverty, unemployment, and illiteracy have increased the burden on the population of these states. He explains that due to these problems, 930,000 students are likely to drop out in Pakistan and women’s education will take a significant blow.
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