Research Papers

Pegasus Spyware: A Case of National Security & Modern Warfare

Written by Hamna Binte Waqar 6:00 pm

Hamna Binte Waqar examines the change in the cyber security realm with the advent of the NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware. After targeting several countries, governments, and individuals, the software has created an uproar in international politics and media. It is now seen as a threat to the national security of states and as an unconventional weapon capable of extracting private information and generating propaganda. While Pegasus has faced continuous backlash, the need to adapt to the transition in the modes of warfare has slowly made it a sought-after weapon in the contemporary security market.
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Period Poverty and Its Impact on Women

Written by Meerab Malik 12:40 pm

Meerab Malik discusses the struggle many low-income women and girls face while trying to afford menstrual products. She uses data from primary and secondary sources to try and understand the consequences of this ‘period poverty’ in their daily lives.
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Using Religion to Ensure Women’s Rights in Pakistan: A Necessity

Written by Mareeha Ahmad 12:16 pm

Women’s rights, which are a key facet of Islam, are increasingly being viewed through a more ‘secular’ lens in Pakistan. The tension that now exists around this cause has caused multiple riots in the name of protecting ‘nationalist’ values. Mareeha Ahmad uses a qualitative approach and proposes the idea of using Islamic frameworks to help the progression of women’s rights in Pakistan.
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The Rise of AI and the Future of War

Written by Ahsan Riaz 11:51 am

Technological evolution has steered the world in a new direction. Artificial intelligence has become deeply embedded in military operations and has changed the very nature of war. Ahsan Riaz discusses how autonomous weapons have become an area of interest for the international community. Though useful, the pursuit and use of these weapons will have severe implications for the states involved in a conflict.
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Hate Speech vs Free Speech Explained

Written by Kanz-ul-eman 11:57 am

Kanz-ul-eman differentiates between hate speech and free speech. She explains how hate speech has thrived under the umbrella of freedom of speech and become widespread in Pakistan and the rest of the world. Various forms of media are being used to disseminate hate speech to incite violence against different groups. The author notes that terrorist groups, in particular, have taken a liking to social media platforms to spread harmful messages and for recruitment purposes.
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Covid-19 in Pakistan: The Public’s Attitude Towards Plastic Waste Generation

Written by Haya Sultan 12:24 pm

In order to address the ongoing surge of plastic waste generation, Haya Sultan created an online questionnaire on the SurveyGizmo app and analyzed the results on the SPSS software to understand the attitude of the public towards plastic pollution. The purpose of this study was to assess the per capita estimation of plastic wastes generated at the domestic level during the Covid-19 period. Sustainable practices and a principle model are needed to mitigate this worldwide problem because it has a significant impact on solid waste management.
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China-Taiwan Conflict: A Clash of Identities

Written by Atiqa Javed 11:59 am

Atiqa Javed explains the China-Taiwan conflict through the lens of social constructivism. She argues that both China and Taiwan have constructed separated identities in their respective population’s consciousness. On top of that, the clash between the growing Taiwanese consciousness and the traditional Chinese identity has heightened the tensions between the two parties, jeopardizing East Asian stability.
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The Impact of Anti-Nuclear Global South Movements on the Control of Nuclear Weapons

Written by Dina Tawfik 12:27 pm

Before being banned, nuclear testing in the Global South had been a major issue for leaders and citizens in those countries. The West found the Global South’s soil to be fair game for nuclear testing while preserving the sanctity of their own lands. In this essay, Dina Tawfik proposes and answers the following research question: to what extent have the Global South’s antinuclear movements had an impact on curbing the usage of nuclear weapons as well as nuclear testing, and on developing a non-proliferation global norm, and nuclear disarmament?
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Examining the Water Crisis of Pakistan

Written by Kashaf Imran 6:02 pm

Water scarcity has become one of the most pressing matters in Pakistan. In 1990, Pakistan reached the water stress line and today, only 23% of its urban population and 14% of its rural population has access to safe drinking water. The author, Kashaf Imran, notes that on top of several other contributing factors, the mismanagement of water resources has prevented Pakistan from properly tackling its water crisis.
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China’s BRI vs the US’s FOIP: Foreign Policy Opportunities and Challenges for Malaysia

Written by Anas Mehmood 12:30 pm

Contemporary publications identify Indo-Pacific as a hub of great power politics. The great powers, China and the US, are striving their best to enhance their sphere of influence across the region through BRI and FOIP respectively. These two strategies bring some opportunities along with certain challenges for ASEAN member states. In this research paper, the structural realism lens is used to analyze the foreign policy situation of Malaysia under these circumstances.
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Explaining the Party System in Canada

Written by Hurain Sheikh 6:40 pm

Since the 1900s, the Canadian party system has evolved from a two-party system to a multiparty. Hurain Sheikh analyzes Canada’s party system in the light of Duverger’s law and Johnston’s study of the system. She argues that the present-day party system in Canada is not based upon polarization but rather on moderate pluralism. Since most Canadians have moderate views on social, economical, and political policies, even the parties with extreme ideological beliefs had to gradually adopt a more moderate stance to appeal to the masses.
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Unleashing the Potential of the SME Sector in Pakistan

Written by Umme Ammara 12:54 pm

Using a general thematic approach, this paper examines the positive and negative externalities of the COVID-19 pandemic on Pakistan’s economy. The author, Umme Ammara, explores the different cases of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) from China, India, Bangladesh and Kazakhstan to understand the different measures the Pakistani government can initiate to strengthen SMEs. The findings suggest that unleashing the potential of the SME sector requires the need for institutional change in a country intending to build a human economy where human development is the main area of concern.
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The Conflict in Syria & Its Brutal Effects on the People

Written by Amna Shaukat 11:47 am

What started off as protests against the authoritarian regime of Bashar al-Assad in 2011, has turned into a decade-long war involving international and domestic actors. The author, Amna Shaukat, applies the conflict tree model to explain the deep-rooted causes of the conflict and the effects of this war on the people of the state. Since the war first broke out, almost 400,000 Syrians have lost their lives while millions have been displaced—internally and externally. It has left Syria devastated in every way. The economy itself will take years to recover, but that too, requires the war to end.
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Relevance of the Marxist International Relations Theory

Written by Hammad Khan 12:50 pm

Today’s global politics revolve around the industrialised world. Therefore, the Marxist international relations theory is relevant to a great extent in analyzing contemporary global politics. The goal of this theory is to radically modify the current social and political order by relying on Karl Marx’s philosophy.
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The China-India Rivalry in Maldives Explained

Written by Zahra Michelle Khan 11:48 am

The strategic location of the Maldives, particularly its proximity to the straits of Malacca and Hormuz and the Gulf of Aden, has drawn the attention of India and China. While China and India are competing with each other to exert their influence on the Maldives, the island state is fully benefitting from its cordial relations with the rival states. Though the China-India competition has serious implications for the stability of South Asia, the author, Zahra Michelle Khan, argues that the Maldives also presents opportunities for cooperation between the two states.
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The Demographic Transition Model in China

Written by Arfah Zia 12:13 pm

Transition in the economic growth of countries takes place when they shift from a high, uncontrolled population to a low and balanced population. The same is the case of China which shifted from low prosperity, high child mortality, and high fertility to a state of high prosperity, low child mortality and low fertility. The author, Arfah Zia, dwells on the impact of the demographic transition on China. She draws attention to how this transition has proven successful for economic growth and, at the same time, discusses how it has become distressing for China’s population size.
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Foreign Intervention in Balochistan and its Implications for Pakistan

Written by Iman Mujahid 12:47 pm

Balochistan’s geostrategic location has captured the attention of all the neighboring countries. Not only has its rich resource abundance and strategic location interested China but Pakistan’s adversaries like US and India have also been actively participating in causing insurgencies in Balochistan to hamper its development. Along with the multifaceted role of the international actors, the indigenous nationalist movements within Balochistan and their increasing relationship with similar ethnicities across the border have also caused serious consequences for Pakistan. The author, Iman Mujahid, highlights how Balochistan has been a symbol of global political exploitation by international actors and how their attempt to intervene in the region has contributed to the existing ball game.
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