Javeria Abbas analyzes the factors that are responsible for the adoption and the rejection of cryptocurrency in Pakistan. She tries to relate each factor responsible for the rejection of cryptocurrency in Pakistan with the Islamic finance system. This paper also gives an insight into the bitcoin transaction system, how bitcoin is used, and how its usage is classified as unislamic.
Abandoning Retribution: Embracing Restorative Justice through Social Institutions in Pakistan and Beyond
Suleman Yousaf explores the role of society in crime prevention; from peer influence to moral reprimands to the loss of social status, he aims to discover potential alternatives to retributive justice. He delves into a nuanced understanding of social status in deterring crime, drawing on Howard S. Becker’s labeling theory. Here, the theory is used to examine how the fear of being labeled and losing esteemed social standing can act as a deterrent against criminal behavior. The study involved surveying 34 participants, and the findings support the proposed hypothesis that the fear of losing social status can indeed deter crime, making crime prevention by social intervention as crucial as investigation, prosecution, and conviction. The paper also proposes a mechanism for establishing social institutions that operate through the “fluidity of identity,” which involves suspending the social status of potential offenders until they embrace civility and abandon the path of criminality.
Yashfa Ahsan reflects on Pakistan’s intricate position amid the Sino-US rivalry. The South Asian state’s strategic location demands a multifaceted and balanced approach in its foreign policy and international relations. The author acknowledges the implications of India and the US’s engagement in the Indian Ocean Region for Pakistan’s security and economy. Bearing this in mind, she emphasizes that, with key players like India, Iran, and Afghanistan drawn into this rivalry, Pakistan must establish itself as a reliable economic and strategic partner for the states involved.
Pakistan possesses a hydropower potential of up to 60,000 MW, with about 40% of it coming from Gilgit-Baltistan and the Kashmir region. Although the natural topography and challenging terrain make it difficult and expensive to bring up grid electrification to most places, particularly in the northern highland parts, Daniyal Bin Tanveer presents Micro Hydro Power (MHP) projects as an interesting policy solution. The paper shall first discuss why a lack of energy production in Pakistan is a massive issue that needs to be addressed, followed by an analysis of the prevailing dynamics of the MHP market. What will follow is a look at this paper’s findings, followed by a proposal of potential policy measures that could be utilized to develop a network of MHPs where possible. Lastly, the economic implications of possibly adopting this policy measure will also be presented, before a brief conclusion ties the entire discussion together.
Amna Naveed analyzes the undeniable link between food insecurity and political instability in a state. While considered a non-traditional security threat, food insecurity directly influences the state military’s retention power, financial spending, and the psychological well-being of the soldiers. By considering the case of Africa’s food crisis, she reveals the impact of capitalism, colonialism, and war on the people of the continent. She emphasizes that if left unchecked, food insecurity can act as one of the factors responsible for protests, insurgencies, civil wars, and revolutions.
The paper emphasizes the importance of civic education for a truly democratic state. It is certainly Pakistan’s best bet for promoting active political participation, increasing civic engagement in political activities, and encouraging healthy voting behaviors, while improving the constitutional literacy of the populace. This paper also tackles ways to improve civic education and engagement in Pakistan by analyzing the German model of civic education.
Public interest litigation is a type of litigation where courts provide civil relief. This is usually for acts infringing on public interests and fundamental rights, that are provided in Articles 8-28 of the constitution. Mehwish Batool explores the constitutional foundation and significance of these judicial powers in Pakistan, invoked under Article 184(3) and Article 199 of the constitution. The Supreme Court has even used its judicial powers to protect endangered species and preserve wildlife through these articles. An example of this is the Province of Sindh vs. Laal Khan chandio case (2016 SCMR 48).
Neorealism views power as a tool for advancing the objectives of the state. This paper reveals that, from a neorealist standpoint, the main objective of the Pakistan-India conflict regarding Kashmir is to advance national interests. By incorporating Kashmir, the nation would gain enormous advantages in terms of social, political, and economic development due to the region’s abundance of resources and natural beauty.
Divided into three sections, the first part of the paper examines the concept of “strategic partnership” as a new framework in international relations and intentional cooperation. It also examines how this concept has become integrated into China’s foreign policy, and the reasons behind Beijing’s over-reliance on it. The second section examines China’s historical relations with Iran up to the announcement of the so-called comprehensive strategic partnership, focusing on the motives and goals of both states. The third section highlights the main challenges that are expected in Beijing’s strategic partnership with Tehran.
Andrew Jackson’s Democratic Party and Abraham Lincoln’s Republican Party continue to dominate American politics today. Have you ever wondered how the two-party system in the United States evolved? This informative paper explores this question and examines the key changes in these two political parties from the nation’s beginning.
Muhammad Usama Siddiqi and Brilliant Windy Khairunnisa aim to explain the factors that led Russia to securitise Ukraine through the lens of the securitisation theory. According to the theory, issues that are fundamentally political are considered and analysed from a security perspective. They use this theory to effectively frame the actors and threats in the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
Hindutva has created divisions in Indian society by forging a ‘Muslim threat’ to legitimize the BJP’s anti-Muslim acts. Nishat Shuja analyzes Modi’s aim of creating a Hindu Rashtra (state) through Hindu supremacist policies and Muslim marginalization. The 2019 Citizenship (Amendment) Act, the revocation of Kashmir’s autonomous status, and the Kerala hijab ban are cases in point for the systemic discrimination against the Muslim minority. Undoubtedly, PM Modi and right-wing Hindu nationalism threaten India’s constitutional foundations by creating a Hindu Rashtra.
Brain drain, also known as the emigration of highly trained labour or talented individuals, has been a contentious issue in the developing world since the 1960s. The mobility of human capital or skilled labour has significant implications for both the economic and political spheres.
Noor-Ul-Haya looks at how our relationship with our national language changed over the decades and is no longer celebrated the way it used to be. She discusses whether the use of the Urdu language has actually been reduced, and then traces down the possible reasons for the decline.
History has seen many examples of sports diplomacy helping states to foster good relations. Football diplomacy involving Israelis and Arabs, the revolutionary ping-pong diplomacy between China and the US, and the cricket diplomacy between India and Pakistan are major case studies elaborating on the significance of sports diplomacy. Masooma Zahra explores the demonstration of this soft power in exhaustive detail, referring to its examples and limitations.
This research aims to explore the impact of Brexit, the most historic event to occur on the European continent since the fall of the Berlin wall. The findings prove that while Brexit has given substance to factors (like taking back control of immigration and regaining sovereignty and national identity), it was not a rational economic decision. The brits realized their mistake in the face of the severe economic hardships that the UK had to face post-Brexit.