Research Papers

The Need for Strategic Autonomy in Pakistan’s Foreign Policy

Written by Uzair Bin Farid 11:47 am

Pakistan’s foreign policy choices have been consistently subservient to exogenous factors and demands. This paper aims to build a case for the introduction of strategic autonomy in Pakistan’s foreign policy and in the pursuit of security. The palpable shift in global powerhouses has brought a rare moment for Pakistan to reset its security policy and move towards a more autonomous course of foreign policy.
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Security and Human Rights as Explained by IR Theories

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The author explains the issues of security and human rights by illustrating a juxtaposition of the central concepts of international relations — constructivism, liberal institutionalism, normative theory, and offensive realism.
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How China Became an Economic Superpower?

Written by Ali Haider Saleem 11:47 am

China’s economic transformation in the last 40 years has had a huge impact on the global economy. This unprecedented economic scenario has attracted a lot of interest, particularly from developing countries looking to emulate China’s success. The author considers the infant industry model to explain China’s rapid industrialization and subsequent economic rise and explains how China’s long-term approach and facilitative policies have enabled local industries to become competitive worldwide. It also discusses what countries like Pakistan can learn from the Chinese experience with regards to strengthening their industrial base.
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Political and Economic Growth of Pakistan Vis-à-vis Bangladesh

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The economic and political growth of Pakistan and Bangladesh after 1971 can be seen as a reflection of their political culture. The author, Hurain Sheikh, explains that the political culture of Pakistan and Bangladesh is not new to elitism, nepotism, and corruption. She notes that while both states have a history of political instability, the economy of Bangladesh has flourished as compared to Pakistan. Keeping in mind how Bangladesh has managed to lower its unemployment and poverty rate, and improved its economy, she suggests a few measures to help Pakistan develop.
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The Media and Aurat March: Friends or Foes?

Written by Allia Bukhari 12:27 pm

On March 8, 2021, hundreds of people in Pakistan’s major cities took to the streets to highlight atrocities against women. This was part of the women’s rights campaign’s biggest mobilization in the country, the Aurat March. The march took place for the 4th year in a row and was met with controversy yet again. This study explores the media’s role in the movement, and more essentially how the print and digital media covered and portrayed this year’s march. The author analyses the portrayal on the basis of five themes: women’s rights, feminism, healthcare for women, violence and harassment, and patriarchy — with the background being the Agenda Setting Theory.
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Should Pakistan Recognize Israel?

Written by Mariam Khalil 12:27 pm

In the wake of the recent normalization of ties between varying Muslim states and Israel, Pakistan was rumored to be following suit. This stirred a debate within Pakistan – with people questioning the pro-Palestinian stance, and the rejection of Israel. The author discusses how Pakistan should continue to maintain the traditional policy towards Israel, and how it would be inadvisable to pursue normalization for limited gains.
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Conflict Resolution: Ending the Rohingya Crisis

Written by Kajal Kumari, Nandini Sahani and Nidhi Patel 11:47 am

The paper discusses the inequities that have continued to exist within Myanmar’s infrastructure since the colonial era. The unrestrained hostility among Myanmar’s ethnicities has caused one of the world’s largest refugee crises. The author presents methods of conflict resolution that may prove effective in resolving the Rohingya conflict.
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United States vs Russia: An Unabating Security Dilemma

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The long history of hostility and rivalry between Russia and the United States has internalized mutual suspicion. US political actors use the rhetoric of insecurity and ‘attack on democracy’ by Russia, while Putin builds on the anti-American sentiment. The author discusses how the United States is likely to keep considering Russia a threat due to the ongoing security dilemma, perceptions of identity and security, and implications of human rights violations.
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The Arabization of Pakistan: Shedding its Indo-Persian Roots

Written by Fahad Syed 11:47 am

How is it that a land thoroughly washed in the Indo-Persian culture, has now become a follower of Arabization? The article explores the ways in which Arabization has infused itself into Pakistan’s culture and society, gradually effacing its Indo-Persian roots. It also analyzes the impact of the cultural shift on Pakistan’s sociopolitical landscape.
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Neo-liberalism, Neo-Confucianism, and the Coronavirus: How China, the US, and Others Responded to the Pandemic

Written by Muhammad Souman Elah 11:47 am

Comparing neoliberalism, Neo-Confucianism, the states representing these ideological approaches and how they handled the pandemic, reveals that China as an authoritative Neo-Confucian state, has been more proficient in handling the virus than the neoliberal states. The author supports this argument by explaining how states like the US, the UK, Italy, Spain, and France have proven themselves incapable of handling the pandemic, while China has effectively limited the proliferation of the virus and ensured the safety of its citizens. The author argues that since the US focuses more on the distribution of power and less on administrative efficiency, it cannot react quickly to unpredictable circumstances.
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Israel and Trump: The Weakening Peace Prospects for Palestine

Written by Mahnoor Nafees 11:47 am

President Trump’s era proved to be markedly different from the traditional policies and narratives of past presidents. President Trump has pursued an increasingly biased foreign policy towards Israel – bestowing Israel with legitimation, and acceptance of its oppressive and violent policies in Palestine. By appointing like-minded officials on important positions, the president had made it clear that he would not be accommodating the Palestinians and their demands.
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Civil War in Myanmar and Human Rights Violations

Written by Nandini Sahani and Kajal Kumari 11:46 am

Myanmar has been subjected to a civil war since the time of its independence. In the last 7 decades, the state’s leadership has failed to ensure peace and stability; on the contrary, it has aided the instability and the failure of democracy. The military coup of 2021 and the human rights violations under the leadership of Aung San Suu Kyi have proved that militarization and human rights abuse are interlinked.
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Administrative Reforms in Pakistan: The Past, Present & Future

Written by Muhammad Adnan Khan, Sarah Ahmed Malik and Usama Shehzad 2:47 pm

The article explores the administrative reforms in Pakistan from the time of the pre-independence era, and, in light of the present difficulties faced by the executive branch, suggests several recommendations that could address the faults in the system. While continuing to maintain its main role as a provider of public goods, the state will be expected to provide regulatory standards and maintain quality assurance to ensure that non-state actors can also provide high-quality services to the citizens.
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The Strategic Importance of Central Asian States

Written by Fazal Rehman Kakar 10:47 am

At the center of the interests of major powers lies Central Asia, a region rich with untapped energy resources and economic markets. The author explains that while the region has immense potential for transnational and international cooperation, the security challenges and instability it faces, make it difficult for the Central Asian states to develop. Furthermore, the continuing instability has made foreign interventions almost necessary for these states.
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Hybrid Warfare and its Implications for Pakistan’s National Security Strategy

Written by Hassnain Moawia 10:47 am

Hybrid warfare is a unique blend of conventional and non-conventional methods of war. Pakistan has endured the constant threat of hybrid warfare since its inception – long before the term even came into existence. To maintain its defense, Pakistan has begun to familiarize itself with such propaganda.
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Eurasianism vs. Neo-Ottomanism in the Turkish Foreign Policy

Written by Necati Demircan 10:47 am

Turkey, formerly the Ottoman Empire, is said to have a foreign policy dictated by neo-Ottomanism, mainly by those who support the West. The author argues that neo-Ottomanism is incompatible with Turkey’s current foreign policies, and instead cites Eurasianism as the idea behind Turkey’s foreign policies.
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Disadvantages of Renewable Energy: The Untold Story

Written by G.N. Mahar 10:46 am

In the shift from non-renewable to green energy sources, human beings have ignored the disadvantages of renewable energy. The author explains that while the energy generated by solar panels, wind turbines, and biomass farms, is renewable, the raw materials used for the construction of equipment or structures to harness it, is not. The author further asserts that in our efforts to tackle climate change, we have been more focused on preserving our way of life than protecting the planet responsible for sustaining it.
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