The Khasav-Yurt Accord of 1996 didn’t last long and it was followed by another bloody war between the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the Russian Federation. Known as the second Chechen war or the second Chechen campaign, this war of independence resurfaced in August 1999 and continued for ten years till April 2009. The bloody encounter cost thousands of deaths and granted significant autonomy to Chechnya from Russia.
Mahnoor Najeeb details the brutal conflict between the Ethiopian government and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF). Following the recount of the ill-fated relationship, she briefly describes the recent peace deal that has been struck between the Tigray forces and the state authorities.
Afflicted by political instability and uncertainty, Pakistan has faced a difficult trail in economic growth. Laiba Umer Malik points out the economic costs that Pakistan has paid due to political uncertainty—elections, protests, and terrorism—in its history.
In the automotive industry of Pakistan, procuring spare parts and then providing the same have always been burdensome. There are several reasons for the sluggish growth of this industry, but the overriding factor that’s holding it back is the lack of an adequate technological infrastructure.
Seemal Nadeem examines the climate change policies of Pakistan (2012 and 2021) to identify how terms like ‘sustainable’, ‘mitigation’, and ‘adaptation’ have been used. She also explains how these terms became a part of the development theory, and the implications these terms have for Pakistan and its policies.
To Ayeza Areej—and many others—the strategies of Chanakya Kautilya, an astute strategist of his time, seem to be reflected in India’s foreign policy. From Kautilya’s Arthashastra, an ancient Indian treatise, readers, too, might find there to be a strong resemblance between the two.
Critical in nature and identified as a cultural movement against modernism, postmodernism rejects universal and definite truths, challenging reason itself. It views existence to be fragmented and irregular while condemning science and technology. Maryam Yasmeen unravels this complex theory and its application to the discipline of international relations.
Summaiyya Qureshi explores the geopolitical importance of the Suez Canal, a widely used route in the marine commercial business that reduces trade costs significantly. The Suez Canal plays a vital role in linking the Mediterranean and Red Seas, making it simpler to export and import commodities from Asian countries to European and African countries, and vice versa.
The first Chechen War (i.e. the Russian-Chechen War) was fought between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria over the control of Chechnya. Also known as the first Chechen campaign, this war of independence started at the end of 1994 and continued till August 1996. The bloody encounter resulted in thousands of deaths and led to the de facto liberation of Chechnya from Russia.
Operation Allied Force (or Operation Noble Anvil), was the aerial bombing campaign that NATO conducted against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War. The bombing began on March 24th, 1999, and continued for nearly 5 months until August 1999. The NATO airstrikes were in response to the Serbian forces’ attempt at ethnic cleansing of the Kosovar Albanians; the cause of which was an ingrained resentment of Kosovo’s autonomy and ability to work against Serbian interests.
While the mainstream media is cognizant of the military discrepancy between Israel and the Palestinians, the consequences of this discrepancy are almost never commented on.
The Ukraine-Russian war has completely altered the global economic landscape. Prices of energy have rampantly increased, embargoes have been placed upon Russia, and chaos has erupted across the world. Amidst these turbulent times, Pakistan’s economy is maybe suffering the most. To keep its foreign reserves from falling further, Pakistan must seek out discounted energy imports. A deal with Russia would most certainly be welcomed as a respite for the energy-strapped nation.
In the 2022 US midterm elections, Republicans were able to secure the 218 seats needed to control the House of Representatives against the Democrats’ 212 seats. The Senate will remain with the Democrats, however, bringing the US to a political standstill. Although Republicans now have hold of the House, it would still be a challenge for them to pass any legislation without the Senate Democrats and the President.
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 was celebrated exuberantly with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 by the free world. Ayesha Javaid reveals what caused the Berlin Wall to be built, and between its construction and eventual dismantling, the key events that occurred.
John Paul Lederach’s concept of conflict transformation provides a set of lenses through which one can draw attention to specific aspects of a conflict, and bring the overall meaning of a conflict into sharper focus. Asra Zahid applies the model to the Israel-Palestine situation, with each of the three points of inquiry of the model bringing a specific aspect of conflict into focus.
The global economy is significantly shaped by multinational corporations (MNCs). Studies have revealed that MNCs exhibit political influence on foreign policy-making in addition to their economic activities. Hamra Tariq discusses how MNCs can now directly influence foreign policy, and even make an impact on the bilateral relations between various countries.
Maryam Yasmeen provides a comprehensive description of the Latin American post-war political culture. Latin America is a region with a history of constant foreign interference, particularly by the US. For instance, the US’s Operation Condor aimed to install military dictatorships in eight Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, among others.