Published Content

Paradigm Shift’s published articles, research papers, and book reviews can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

The Rise of AI and the Future of War

Written by Ahsan Riaz 11:51 am

Technological evolution has steered the world in a new direction. Artificial intelligence has become deeply embedded in military operations and has changed the very nature of war. Ahsan Riaz discusses how autonomous weapons have become an area of interest for the international community. Though useful, the pursuit and use of these weapons will have severe implications for the states involved in a conflict.
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The Ecofeminist Movement

Written by Zunaira Malik 1:09 pm

Ecofeminism is an inter-disciplinary branch of environmentalism and feminism. It is an umbrella term that ties up climate catastrophe with socially constructed gender disparities. The central notion of ecofeminism is the belief that footprints of male-dominated malpractices are visible in the form of irreversible climate problems. Zunaira Malik believes that ecofeminism is a critical approach to racial and gender segregation, dualism, imperialism and classist attitudes – with an ultimate commitment to establishing egalitarian societies.
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Why US Invaded Iraq: How Bush Destroyed a Nation

Written by Maryam Yasmeen 11:50 am

George W. Bush’s statement on May 19th, 2022 has once again brought the destruction of Iraq into the spotlight. For many, the former president’s remarks are his admission of guilt for the horrors and injustice caused by his decision to invade Iraq in 2003. Maryam Yasmeen examines the 2003 Iraq war and explains how the decision of one man led to the fall of an entire state.
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Pakistan’s Israel Conundrum

Written by Afifa Iqbal 12:03 pm

While there have allegedly been quite a few secret meetings between the state officials of Pakistan and Israel in the past, the recent public visit of the Pakistani delegation to Israel has raised a lot of questions about whether Pakistan will recognize the state. Afifa Iqbal discusses the events that led to this meeting, and how it would be unwise to attempt to normalise ties with Israel without considering Pakistan’s national interests.
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How Democracies Die

Written by Syed Yasir Abbas Shah 12:14 pm

Steven Levitsky and Daniel Ziblett’s book “How Democracies Die” discusses what factors weaken democracy, and what ultimately causes the downfall of democracy. Reflecting on Linz’s litmus test for undemocratic politicians, the authors put light on Donald J. Trump’s political career. To save democracy, the authors put forth two ways: mutual tolerance and institutional forbearance.
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Private Military Companies (PMCs) & How They Get Away with Murder

Written by Adam Abass 11:48 am

In modern warfare, the role of private military companies (PMCs) has significantly increased. The world’s major powers, in particular, are keen on employing PMCs in conflict zones. The author, Adam Abass, notes that the strong ties between these companies and states have allowed the former to evade prosecution or sentences for their alleged war crimes and human rights abuses.
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Understanding the Kashmir Conflict Through Realism

Written by Haleema Bhatti 12:28 pm

The Kashmir conflict started between India and Pakistan after the Maharaja of Kashmir Hari Singh acceded to India – despite it being a Muslim majority area. This research aims to study the history of the Kashmir conflict and the policies adopted by India and Pakistan from a realist perspective. Haleema Bhatti believes that for national interests and state survival, both states have tried their best to maximise their power and dominance in the region.
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Shooting for a Century: The India-Pakistan Conundrum by Stephen P. Cohen (Book Review)

Written by Haider Ali Khan 11:47 am

In “Shooting for a Century: The India-Pakistan Conundrum,” Stephen P. Cohen analyzes the future of India-Pakistan relations. Cohen argues that even after the two rival South Asian states surpass a century since their independence, the ties between them are unlikely to normalize.
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A War of Attrition: The Taliban vs ISIS-K

Written by Hania Amaad 5:51 pm

What is the relationship between the Taliban and ISIS? Are they allies or dissimilar enemies? Hania Amaad details the formation and outlook of the ISIS-K and its interactions with the Taliban.
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The Unjust Criminal Justice System of Pakistan

Written by Alishba Siddiqui 12:18 pm

The crude reality of countless unresolved cases exposes the incompetence and the flaws of the criminal justice system of Pakistan. Alishba Siddiqui discusses how despite being extremely ‘high profile’, justice has still not been served in the Noor Muqaddam case, the Benazir Assassination case, and the Jazlan murder case – and many others.
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The Russia-Ukraine War: Impact on Global Food Security

Written by Aimen Jamil and Zartaj Chaudhary 12:25 pm

One of the most recent factors negatively affecting food security is the armed struggle between Russia and Ukraine. Aimen Jamil and Zartaj Chaudhary explain how droughts, shortage of fertilisers, and geopolitical tensions are possibly creating a global food crisis.
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Hate Speech vs Free Speech Explained

Written by Kanz-ul-eman 11:57 am

Kanz-ul-eman differentiates between hate speech and free speech. She explains how hate speech has thrived under the umbrella of freedom of speech and become widespread in Pakistan and the rest of the world. Various forms of media are being used to disseminate hate speech to incite violence against different groups. The author notes that terrorist groups, in particular, have taken a liking to social media platforms to spread harmful messages and for recruitment purposes.
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The Military and Domestic Politics: A Concordance Theory of Civil-Military Relations

Written by Omair Farooq Khan 12:14 pm

In “The Military and Domestic Politics: A Concordance Theory of Civil-Military Relations,” Rebecca Schiff uses the concordance theory to better understand and explore the reason for military intervention than the traditional theory of separation which has its roots in the Western system, making it incompatible for non-Western countries. She also gives due importance to institutional development and culture in understanding the civil-military relations of a state.
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New World Order: The Rise of Far-Right Populism

Written by Zunaira Malik 12:23 pm

A sudden surge in the right-wing political groups centered around white supremacist ideologies, is leading to democracy being undermined all over the world. Zunaira Malik observes the veiled origins and the swift rise of these groups, and the myriad of themes within far-right politics.
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Covid-19 in Pakistan: The Public’s Attitude Towards Plastic Waste Generation

Written by Haya Sultan 12:24 pm

In order to address the ongoing surge of plastic waste generation, Haya Sultan created an online questionnaire on the SurveyGizmo app and analyzed the results on the SPSS software to understand the attitude of the public towards plastic pollution. The purpose of this study was to assess the per capita estimation of plastic wastes generated at the domestic level during the Covid-19 period. Sustainable practices and a principle model are needed to mitigate this worldwide problem because it has a significant impact on solid waste management.
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What’s Missing in the Climate Agreements and the Conference of Parties?

Written by Muhammad Danish Raza 12:54 pm

With climate change being a formidable opponent, several agreements have been drafted and the annual Conference of Parties held — but why is it that nothing significant has been done yet? Muhammad Danish Raza claims that it is because these frameworks lack a practical approach and overlook oil and petroleum-based economies.
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The Nexus Between Institutions and Economic Growth

Written by Afifa Iqbal 12:32 pm

Institutions, specifically good/inclusive ones and those from Europe and North America, have been synonymous with economic growth. Afifa Iqbal proposes to eliminate the dichotomous view of institutions and instead, pay attention to the dynamics between the concerned state and society, the socio-political realities, and the historical entanglements.
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