Published Content

Paradigm Shift’s published articles, research papers, opinion pieces and book reviews can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus broadly include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

A Digital Democracy: Social Media & Political Participation

Written by Torchbearer CSS Academy 7:47 pm

Social media has proven itself to be a valuable tool in the political and democratic discourse, digitally and globally. It provides an opportunity for individuals to engage in civilized political discussions. Political engagement on social media is a necessary means to uplift democracy. Such discussions are the basis for the liberation of ideas and the evolution of the political and democratic processes. The Pew Research Center conducted a survey to understand the effect of social media on democracy. In 12 out of 19 nations, adults aged 18 to 29 believe that social media has been good for democracy – as opposed to those 50 and older who believed otherwise.
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Declassified Diplomacy: Argentina and the US

Written by Gul Afsha Ahmed 9:39 pm

The entire Carter administration disapproved of the human rights violations by the military junta within Argentina in the 1970s. However, the declassified documents in the National Security Archive reveal that “quiet diplomacy” was used to maintain political ties with the military junta. Instead of voicing his concerns in public, President Jimmy Carter chose to discuss the internal conflict with General Videla of the military junta in a private setting.
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Addressing Africa’s Looming Debt Crisis

Written by Henri Kouam 7:08 pm

As China and the US spar for international supremacy, developing African economies are in need of cooperation to stave off a debt crisis by facilitating long-term investments. Africa’s total debt burden is estimated at $696 billion, with China being the largest single bilateral donor as its debts are comparable to the World Bank-International Development Association (IDA) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). What’s often intentionally overlooked in the foreground of debt-trap diplomacy is China’s potential in supporting Africa’s debt sustainability. As such, Henri Kouam believes that the broader geopolitical rivalry between China and the US must be separated from Africa’s debt problems.
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Exploring the Legal Framework of Public Interest Litigation in Pakistan

Written by Mehwish Batool 8:26 pm

Public interest litigation is a type of litigation where courts provide civil relief. This is usually for acts infringing on public interests and fundamental rights, that are provided in Articles 8-28 of the constitution. Mehwish Batool explores the constitutional foundation and significance of these judicial powers in Pakistan, invoked under Article 184(3) and Article 199 of the constitution. The Supreme Court has even used its judicial powers to protect endangered species and preserve wildlife through these articles. An example of this is the Province of Sindh vs. Laal Khan chandio case (2016 SCMR 48).
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Will Kim Ju Ae Be North Korea’s Next Successor?

Written by Fatimah Naeem 8:08 pm

Since November 2022, Kim Jong-Un has made several public appearances alongside his beloved daughter Kim Ju-Ae. This has led analysts around the world into making numerous assumptions and speculations regarding the father-daughter duo. Both have been observed attending ICB missile launches in the North Korean capital, so this could be an indication of a possible successor. Or, is it just a mere publicity stunt by the Kim dynasty to showcase their importance?
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The Pashtuns: A Contested History

Written by Sidra Ahad 7:56 pm

“The Pashtuns: A Contested History” is an account of the Pashtun ethnic group, their journey through history, their struggle with foreign invaders, and internal conflicts. Tilak Devasher highlights Pakistan’s role in the rise of the Taliban and in their endurance, especially during the American invasion in the post-9/11 era.
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A Guide to Becoming a Civil Servant in Pakistan

Written by Torchbearer CSS Academy 7:56 pm

Becoming a civil servant in Pakistan requires passing through multiple phases, including meeting eligibility criteria, passing an MCQ-based preliminary test, a written examination, a psychological assessment test, and an interview. Those who successfully pass these stages must undergo six months of training at the Civil Services Academy (CSA), followed by specialized training programs at specific group academies. Passing the CSS exam is no easy feat. Only 2.11% of the students passed the written exams in 2021 (364 of 17,240), and a mere 1.94% passed in 2022 (393 of 20,262)!
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Women’s Mobility in Karachi: The Pink Bus Initiative

Written by Maryam Jilani 7:31 pm

Mobility is a challenge for many women around the world, but especially in Pakistan. Maryam Jilani explores infrastructure and how it causes gendered inequalities. She applauds the pink bus service in Karachi and encourages initiatives and infrastructure for gender-inclusive access.
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Are China and Russia Replacing the US in the Middle East?

Written by Sana Azhar 8:48 pm

China and Russia are making strategic and economic deals with the Middle East, especially Iran and Saudi Arabia, which will be detrimental to the domination of the US in the region.  Moreover, Western hostility has brought China, Russia, and Iran close to forming a triple axis.  To better understand China and Russia’s increasing relations in the Middle East, Sana Azhar explores the economic, strategic, and soft power domains.
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PEMRA Suspends ARY News’ License Again

Written by Afifa Iqbal 5:00 pm

In recent spate of political events, the license of one of the mainstream news broadcasters, ARY News, was cancelled by the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA). PEMRA issued a ban on airing the speeches of the former premier Imran Khan on March 5th, with the warning that any media house found in violation would have its broadcasting license cancelled.
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Will Chinese BeiDou Surpass American GPS?

Written by Zainab Imran 7:34 pm

Zainab Imran provides a detailed comparison of two navigation systems: the Chinese BeiDou and the American GPS. BeiDou is a recent development in the global navigation system, and this seems to be a new hegemonic strategy by China to deal with its contenders. Named after the Chinese term for the Big Dipper constellation, BeiDou has been in development since the 1990s and has been operational globally since 2020.
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A Look at the Major Economic Systems

Written by Haris Khan 8:07 pm

Haris Khan explains the three major economic systems recognized globally, namely command, market, and mixed economies.  He believes that mixed economies, owing to the fusion of both the command and market economy’s characteristics, are more viable and efficient.
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Babar Azam as Captain: Out or Not Out?

Written by Amjad Riaz 6:43 pm

The PCB’s announcement of the squad for the T20I series yesterday has people surprised by the absence of the Pakistan team’s captain, Babar Azam. In this opinion piece, Amjad Riaz makes the case for why Babar should be able to keep his captaincy—do you think the same?
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Guyana Moves Towards Digital Governance

Written by Areej Haider 9:02 pm

The government of Guyana wants to move its services online and create an efficient digital system of governance. The digital structure of the nation will be essential for fostering sustainable growth and lowering economic and social inequality.
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Nigeria’s 2023 Presidential Elections

Written by Ayesha Javaid 6:31 pm

Nigeria, the giant of Africa, held its 2023 presidential elections on 25th February. This one marked the 7th election since democracy returned to Nigeria in 1999. Bola Ahmed Tinbu, Atiku Abubakar, and Peter Obi were the front-runners out of a total of 18 candidates. On 1st March, Nigeria’s electoral commission declared Mr Tinbu as the victor with 8.7 million votes.
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The Football War of 1969

Written by Ayeza Areej 7:31 pm

There were a series of tensions and disagreements over territories and immigration that escalated to a conflict following a football match between El Salvador and Honduras. The Football War of 1969 was a hundred-hour war that resulted in the dissolution of the El Salvador–Honduras diplomatic ties and the deaths of over 3000 people from both countries.
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The Dangers of Free Speech Absolutism

Written by Mir Adnan Aziz 9:09 pm

Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Lord Acton’s words can also be applicable to free speech. Mir Adnan Aziz holds that free speech absolutism—speech that knows no restrictions or limitations—has disfigured the sanctity of free speech. He makes his case by centering the piece around how Charlie Hebdo abused free speech, by continually publishing extremely offensive, and sometimes blasphemous cartoons.
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