Published Content

All of Paradigm Shift’s published content (articles and research papers) can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

5th Generation Warfare in Pakistan: Internal and External Hands

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 12:01 pm

The modes of warfare have now shifted from conventional to 5th generation warfare. Electronic and social mediums are now being widely used by external foes to malign Pakistan, and create an anti-military narrative amongst the country’s populace. Muhammad Hamza Tanvir critically analyzes the internal and external hybrid threats being faced by Pakistan today.
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The Need for Strategic Autonomy in Pakistan’s Foreign Policy

Written by Uzair Bin Farid 11:47 am

Pakistan’s foreign policy choices have been consistently subservient to exogenous factors and demands. This paper aims to build a case for the introduction of strategic autonomy in Pakistan’s foreign policy and in the pursuit of security. The palpable shift in global powerhouses has brought a rare moment for Pakistan to reset its security policy and move towards a more autonomous course of foreign policy.
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Farewell Afghanistan: Consequences of the US Troop Withdrawal

Written by Dr. Taut Bataut 12:28 pm

The author reflects on the possible events and scenarios that will spiral as the September deadline for the US’s departure nears. The article frames a careful analysis of Afghanistan’s future in view of the past courses taken by the Afghan government, the Taliban, the US, and regional states. One matter remains decided, however, and that is the US troop withdrawal.
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Jahangir Tareen vs PTI: Will PM Imran Khan Complete 5 Years?

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 12:30 pm

Will the incumbent Prime Minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan, be able to complete his five-year term? Or will he be met with the same fate as those who preceded him? The author poignantly assesses the various forces steering the future of the current government.
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The Rationale and Significance for Soft Power in Pakistan

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

Has soft power become an esoteric term? The term alone calls for priority in the agenda of states in a world that hurriedly ushers a digital global community. Last month, Paradigm Shift conducted a poll, wherein 86% of the participants considered it crucial for Pakistan to develop its soft power. In view of that, the author underscores the importance of soft power not only for Pakistan but for every state.
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Security and Human Rights as Explained by IR Theories

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The author explains the issues of security and human rights by illustrating a juxtaposition of the central concepts of international relations — constructivism, liberal institutionalism, normative theory, and offensive realism.
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How China Became an Economic Superpower?

Written by Ali Haider Saleem 11:47 am

China’s economic transformation in the last 40 years has had a huge impact on the global economy. This unprecedented economic scenario has attracted a lot of interest, particularly from developing countries looking to emulate China’s success. The author considers the infant industry model to explain China’s rapid industrialization and subsequent economic rise and explains how China’s long-term approach and facilitative policies have enabled local industries to become competitive worldwide. It also discusses what countries like Pakistan can learn from the Chinese experience with regards to strengthening their industrial base.
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What is the BDS Movement Against Israel?

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 11:47 am

Palestinians and their supporters have realized that the most effective way of fighting against Israel is the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanction (BDS) movement. By boycotting Israeli products and pushing for divestment and sanctions on Israel, the movement aims to exert international pressure on Israel, the world governments, and international institutions to dismantle Israel’s apartheid wall, ensure the rights of the Palestinians, end the colonization of Arab lands, and impose the UN Resolution 194. The author, Muhammad Hamza Tanvir, explains that since the drive is a threat to Israel and its allies, the western media, has labelled the movement as “racist”. He further explains that supporting the movement will not only benefit the suffering Palestinians but also the people of the countries backing it.
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United States’ Involvement in Libya: Another Case of Oil Interests

Written by Ayesha Zafar 11:46 am

Due to its strategic location and vast oil reserves, Libya has attracted the attention of the world’s major powers. For these states, Libya’s war-torn condition is irrelevant and only their national interests matter. The author, Ayesha Zafar, notes that since the US’s interests are linked to oil in Libya, it continuously exploits the state by not only making use of the capitalist economic order but also by supporting opposing factions—the Haftar group and the Government of National Accord (GNA)—simultaneously, within Libya. Moreover, to influence the state, the US and the major powers impose the capitalist ideology on it through policies introduced by international economic institutions like the World Bank and the IMF.
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An Overview of Cost Auditing in Pakistan

Written by Adil Abbasi 11:46 am

In the face of global market competition, Pakistan’s industries need to effectively utilize the factors of production. The degree of competitiveness in the state’s domestic and international market determines the survival of its industries and economy. Noting this, Adil Abbasi, a member of the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants (ICMA), asserts that cost auditing across the industries of Pakistan will aid in meeting the challenges of market competition. He explains that while cost auditing is implemented in Pakistan, it is only limited to a few industries and thus, the state cannot fully benefit from it.
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Political and Economic Growth of Pakistan Vis-à-vis Bangladesh

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The economic and political growth of Pakistan and Bangladesh after 1971 can be seen as a reflection of their political culture. The author, Hurain Sheikh, explains that the political culture of Pakistan and Bangladesh is not new to elitism, nepotism, and corruption. She notes that while both states have a history of political instability, the economy of Bangladesh has flourished as compared to Pakistan. Keeping in mind how Bangladesh has managed to lower its unemployment and poverty rate, and improved its economy, she suggests a few measures to help Pakistan develop.
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A JCPOA for the Growing Israeli Nuclear Weapons Program

Written by Mirwaise Khan 11:47 am

Israel is a nation involved in uranium enrichment programs – just like Iran. While these programs are not acknowledged by the Israeli government, expert opinions confirming these statements are available. The author argues for a framework (like the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action i.e. the Iran nuclear deal) for Israel’s quietly escalating nuclear projects.
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The Current Situation of Pakistan’s Economy in Light of Covid-19

Written by Mohammad Ali Zafar 12:47 pm

Pakistan’s fluctuating economy has witnessed an alarming downturn after the brutal second wave of Covid-19. The poverty rate was predicted to increase to a whopping 58.6% (from the pre-Covid 23.4%) in the case of a high impact scenario. With a third wave currently gripping the state, the author believes that the government’s policies can either improve the economic situation of the country – or make it much worse.
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The 2008 Gaza Massacre: Israel’s Previous Incursion

Written by Sarmad Ishfaq 11:47 am

This is a review of a study on the ‘Gaza Massacre’ which was launched by Israel in 2008 – where they killed over 1400 Palestinians. The study uses the Just-War Theory to delineate how Israel acted immorally and illegally during this operation – and many times in the past. Many human rights violations of the Palestinians were cited by international overseers, where they noted the cruelty of the Israeli forces.
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Are CPEC and East India Company Different?

Written by Ayesha Zafar 12:59 pm

Over the years, the people of Pakistan have expressed their growing concern over the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). It has become a common misconception in Pakistan that CPEC is just another modern-day East India Company. The author, Ayesha Zafar, compares the two and argues that the objectives of CPEC and the circumstances under which China set foot in Pakistan are different from that of the East India Company. She notes that while the East India Company was imperialist in nature and only benefitted the British Empire, CPEC profits both China and Pakistan. Instead of exploiting Pakistan, it is aiding in infrastructural development, energy production, and alleviating unemployment in Pakistan.
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Israeli Attacks on Palestinians: A Third Intifada?

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 2:00 pm

The author considers the violence against Palestinians to be a threat to international human rights, as Israeli attacks on Palestinians have continued since last Friday, shaking Jerusalem and its inhabitants. Indiscriminate violence by Israeli forces mounted after protests by Palestinians against the forceful eviction and occupation of Palestinian land. The attacks inside Al-Aqsa mosque – a place held sacred by both Muslims and Jews – have sparked outrage and calls for condemnation of the Israeli forces.
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How Climate Change in Pakistan Affects Migration

Written by Omair Farooq Khan 11:46 am

Migration induced by climate change is not a new phenomenon. Pakistan’s climate-induced migration is mainly linked to the natural disasters and extreme weather which cause the state to experience unseasonal rains, floods, and droughts. Due to these conditions, people are forced to migrate to cities in search of food, shelter and jobs. The author, Omair Farooq Khan, notes that climate change has aggravated Pakistan’s water crisis, and any change in Pakistan’s water resources will be destructive for the agriculture sector. Keeping in mind that the 2009-2010 floods displaced more than 2 million people in Pakistan, he recommends ways for Pakistan to tackle extreme weather conditions.
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