Published Content

Paradigm Shift’s published articles, research papers, opinion pieces and book reviews can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus broadly include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

The Second Chechen War: Seizing Chechnya

Written by Amna Walistan 1:43 pm

The Khasav-Yurt Accord of 1996 didn’t last long and it was followed by another bloody war between the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the Russian Federation. Known as the second Chechen war or the second Chechen campaign, this war of independence resurfaced in August 1999 and continued for ten years till April 2009. The bloody encounter cost thousands of deaths and granted significant autonomy to Chechnya from Russia.
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The Tigray Conflict: A Truce for Peace in Ethiopia

Written by Mahnoor Najeeb 7:44 pm

Mahnoor Najeeb details the brutal conflict between the Ethiopian government and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF). Following the recount of the ill-fated relationship, she briefly describes the recent peace deal that has been struck between the Tigray forces and the state authorities.
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All Hail Extremism

Written by Raja Abdullah 1:08 pm

Raja Abdullah addresses the prevailing extremism, and its detrimental impact on the sociopolitical environment in Pakistan. He observes that extremism (religious and political) started growing roots since the early years of the state’s inception. The full extent of that extremism now threatens to engulf the people of Pakistan.
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The Economic Cost of Political Instability

Written by Laiba Umer Malik 7:47 pm

Afflicted by political instability and uncertainty, Pakistan has faced a difficult trail in economic growth. Laiba Umer Malik points out the economic costs that Pakistan has paid due to political uncertainty—elections, protests, and terrorism—in its history.
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The Unending Game: A Former R&AW Chief’s Insights into Espionage

Written by Muhammad Osama Asghar 12:47 pm

The Unending Game: A Former R&AW Chief’s Insights into Espionage by Vikram Sood is a brilliant piece of writing that is based on the workings of a premier intelligence agency. Vikram Sood has discussed various examples of the foreign policy contours of India while simultaneously poking around the organization, hierarchy, operations, successes, and failures of an agency.
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Propelling Pakistan’s Automotive Industry to Embrace Technology

Written by PartEx Technologies 7:30 pm

In the automotive industry of Pakistan, procuring spare parts and then providing the same have always been burdensome. There are several reasons for the sluggish growth of this industry, but the overriding factor that’s holding it back is the lack of an adequate technological infrastructure.
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Buzzwords in the National Climate Change Policy of Pakistan

Written by Seemal Nadeem 12:47 pm

Seemal Nadeem examines the climate change policies of Pakistan (2012 and 2021) to identify how terms like ‘sustainable’, ‘mitigation’, and ‘adaptation’ have been used. She also explains how these terms became a part of the development theory, and the implications these terms have for Pakistan and its policies.
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The Foreign Policy of India: Mirroring the Strategies of Chanakya Kautilya

Written by Ayeza Areej 3:43 pm

To Ayeza Areej—and many others—the strategies of Chanakya Kautilya, an astute strategist of his time, seem to be reflected in India’s foreign policy. From Kautilya’s Arthashastra, an ancient Indian treatise, readers, too, might find there to be a strong resemblance between the two.
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Postmodernism in International Relations

Written by Maryam Yasmeen 7:40 pm

Critical in nature and identified as a cultural movement against modernism, postmodernism rejects universal and definite truths, challenging reason itself. It views existence to be fragmented and irregular while condemning science and technology. Maryam Yasmeen unravels this complex theory and its application to the discipline of international relations.
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The Geopolitical Importance of the Suez Canal

Written by Summaiyya Qureshi 12:47 pm

Summaiyya Qureshi explores the geopolitical importance of the Suez Canal, a widely used route in the marine commercial business that reduces trade costs significantly. The Suez Canal plays a vital role in linking the Mediterranean and Red Seas, making it simpler to export and import commodities from Asian countries to European and African countries, and vice versa.
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Remembering the First Chechen War

Written by Amna Walistan 7:49 pm

The first Chechen War (i.e. the Russian-Chechen War) was fought between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria over the control of Chechnya. Also known as the first Chechen campaign, this war of independence started at the end of 1994 and continued till August 1996. The bloody encounter resulted in thousands of deaths and led to the de facto liberation of Chechnya from Russia.
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Operation Noble Anvil: NATO Bombing of Yugoslavia

Written by Abrish Nayyar 1:02 pm

Operation Allied Force (or Operation Noble Anvil), was the aerial bombing campaign that NATO conducted against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War. The bombing began on March 24th, 1999, and continued for nearly 5 months until August 1999. The NATO airstrikes were in response to the Serbian forces’ attempt at ethnic cleansing of the Kosovar Albanians; the cause of which was an ingrained resentment of Kosovo’s autonomy and ability to work against Serbian interests.
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Redefining Development in Pakistan

Written by Aleena Khan 8:11 pm

Aleena Khan opines that the term ‘development’ usually exhibits Western ideas. She argues that the reproduction of the Western ideals of development would be structurally and culturally unviable for developing countries, particularly Pakistan. To remedy this, she urges the citizens of Pakistan to redefine ‘development’ in a way that reflects their values.
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Politics in Pakistan: A Sight for Sore Eyes?

Written by Shahwar Akbar 12:07 pm

Shahwar Akbar finds the current political climate of Pakistan unsettling. He observes that the level of political discourse has been shrinking over time as the electorate is more concerned with which candidate can be aesthetically portrayed.
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David vs Goliath: The Epic Military Mismatch Between Palestine and Israel

Written by Sarmad Ishfaq 7:00 pm

While the mainstream media is cognizant of the military discrepancy between Israel and the Palestinians, the consequences of this discrepancy are almost never commented on.
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Sports: A Tool for Diplomacy

Written by Masooma Zahra 12:48 pm

History has seen many examples of sports diplomacy helping states to foster good relations. Football diplomacy involving Israelis and Arabs, the revolutionary ping-pong diplomacy between China and the US, and the cricket diplomacy between India and Pakistan are major case studies elaborating on the significance of sports diplomacy. Masooma Zahra explores the demonstration of this soft power in exhaustive detail, referring to its examples and limitations.
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The Controversial Oil Deal Between Pakistan and Russia

Written by Amna Asif 7:11 pm

The Ukraine-Russian war has completely altered the global economic landscape. Prices of energy have rampantly increased, embargoes have been placed upon Russia, and chaos has erupted across the world. Amidst these turbulent times, Pakistan’s economy is maybe suffering the most. To keep its foreign reserves from falling further, Pakistan must seek out discounted energy imports. A deal with Russia would most certainly be welcomed as a respite for the energy-strapped nation.
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