International Relations

Hate Speech vs Free Speech Explained

Written by Kanz-ul-eman 11:57 am

Kanz-ul-eman differentiates between hate speech and free speech. She explains how hate speech has thrived under the umbrella of freedom of speech and become widespread in Pakistan and the rest of the world. Various forms of media are being used to disseminate hate speech to incite violence against different groups. The author notes that terrorist groups, in particular, have taken a liking to social media platforms to spread harmful messages and for recruitment purposes.
Read More

China-Taiwan Conflict: A Clash of Identities

Written by Atiqa Javed 11:59 am

Atiqa Javed explains the China-Taiwan conflict through the lens of social constructivism. She argues that both China and Taiwan have constructed separated identities in their respective population’s consciousness. On top of that, the clash between the growing Taiwanese consciousness and the traditional Chinese identity has heightened the tensions between the two parties, jeopardizing East Asian stability.
Read More

The Impact of Anti-Nuclear Global South Movements on the Control of Nuclear Weapons

Written by Dina Tawfik 12:27 pm

Before being banned, nuclear testing in the Global South had been a major issue for leaders and citizens in those countries. The West found the Global South’s soil to be fair game for nuclear testing while preserving the sanctity of their own lands. In this essay, Dina Tawfik proposes and answers the following research question: to what extent have the Global South’s antinuclear movements had an impact on curbing the usage of nuclear weapons as well as nuclear testing, and on developing a non-proliferation global norm, and nuclear disarmament?
Read More

China’s BRI vs the US’s FOIP: Foreign Policy Opportunities and Challenges for Malaysia

Written by Anas Mehmood 12:30 pm

Contemporary publications identify Indo-Pacific as a hub of great power politics. The great powers, China and the US, are striving their best to enhance their sphere of influence across the region through BRI and FOIP respectively. These two strategies bring some opportunities along with certain challenges for ASEAN member states. In this research paper, the structural realism lens is used to analyze the foreign policy situation of Malaysia under these circumstances.
Read More

Explaining the Party System in Canada

Written by Hurain Sheikh 6:40 pm

Since the 1900s, the Canadian party system has evolved from a two-party system to a multiparty. Hurain Sheikh analyzes Canada’s party system in the light of Duverger’s law and Johnston’s study of the system. She argues that the present-day party system in Canada is not based upon polarization but rather on moderate pluralism. Since most Canadians have moderate views on social, economical, and political policies, even the parties with extreme ideological beliefs had to gradually adopt a more moderate stance to appeal to the masses.
Read More

The Conflict in Syria & Its Brutal Effects on the People

Written by Amna Shaukat 11:47 am

What started off as protests against the authoritarian regime of Bashar al-Assad in 2011, has turned into a decade-long war involving international and domestic actors. The author, Amna Shaukat, applies the conflict tree model to explain the deep-rooted causes of the conflict and the effects of this war on the people of the state. Since the war first broke out, almost 400,000 Syrians have lost their lives while millions have been displaced—internally and externally. It has left Syria devastated in every way. The economy itself will take years to recover, but that too, requires the war to end.
Read More

Relevance of the Marxist International Relations Theory

Written by Hammad Khan 12:50 pm

Today’s global politics revolve around the industrialised world. Therefore, the Marxist international relations theory is relevant to a great extent in analyzing contemporary global politics. The goal of this theory is to radically modify the current social and political order by relying on Karl Marx’s philosophy.
Read More

The China-India Rivalry in Maldives Explained

Written by Zahra Michelle Khan 11:48 am

The strategic location of the Maldives, particularly its proximity to the straits of Malacca and Hormuz and the Gulf of Aden, has drawn the attention of India and China. While China and India are competing with each other to exert their influence on the Maldives, the island state is fully benefitting from its cordial relations with the rival states. Though the China-India competition has serious implications for the stability of South Asia, the author, Zahra Michelle Khan, argues that the Maldives also presents opportunities for cooperation between the two states.
Read More

Can Pakistan’s Tourism Exceed the Maldives’?

Written by Akseer Ali Saif Janjua, Sarah Kiyani, Saqib Ameen and Saliha Waseem 11:54 am

Pakistan is striving to develop maritime tourism to broadcast its image as a tourist-friendly country and to prosper economically. The authors, Akseer Ali Saif Janjua, Sarah Kiyani, Saliha Waseem, and Saqib Ameen, explore the country’s tourism potential, and the development carried out in the sector by comparing it to the Republic of Maldives—a country which was once considered unsuitable for tourism but is now one of the world’s top tourist destinations.
Read More

Cyberbullying in Pakistan: The Case of Cyber Harassment Against Women

Written by Haleema Bhatti 11:47 am

Aside from facilitating communication, trading, and education, the internet has brought along with it an immense amount of harassment and bullying. Forty percent of women in Pakistan have been victims of cyberbullying in the form of sexual harassment, blackmailing, hate speech, stalking, identity theft, and physical threats. Haleema Bhatti explains how when it comes to the female victims of cyber harassment in Pakistan, only 28% of women report the harassment, while the rest don’t – mainly because they’re embarrassed.
Read More

Iran: A Common Enemy of Israel and the Arab Countries

Written by Rubab Nawaz and Kanza Tahir 5:30 pm

The relations of the Arab states, namely Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain, Egypt, and Oman, with Israel have always been based upon what they perceive as a threat and what benefits them. The authors, Rubab Nawaz and Kanza Tahir, explain that initially, these Arab states viewed Israel as the enemy but now, they’ve started to align themselves with it to counter the threat of a Shi’ite and nuclear Iran. This threat has been securitized to gain legitimacy from the masses. For the sake of this Arab-Israel alliance, the Gulf states seem to have sidelined the issue of Palestine.
Read More

All Eyes on the Republics of Central Asia’s Resources

Written by Khaulah Fatimah Ijaz, Lyba Mobeen, Maria Mehboob and Zohra Asif 12:40 pm

The onset of the geopolitics of energy and resources in the international political system has redefined the regions’ importance in terms of the reservoirs of resources. Central Asia, in this respect, stands out with its abundant, unexplored, and top-notch natural resources. The paper highlights the factors behind the arousing interests of Pakistan, China, and the United States in the Central Asian republics. The future of Central Asia’s political, economic, and geostrategic landscape shall be determined by the member countries’ course of policies and actions towards Pakistan, China, and the United States.
Read More

A Peaceful Afghanistan: The Interest of Pakistan, China, & the Region

Written by Muhammad Saad, Eman Anjum, Jizza Babar and M. Shaheer Khattak 11:47 am

Over the years, the state of Afghanistan has experienced terrorism, drug trafficking, human rights abuse, political turmoil, geostrategic and geo-economic tussle, and societal deterioration. The instability in the state has impacted Pakistan, China, Iran, Turkey, and the Central Asian Republics as well. The authors, Muhammad Saad, Eman Anjum, Jizza Babar, and M. Shaheer Khattak, note that for their own interests, these regional states seek a peaceful Afghanistan, the establishment of which is not an easy task. For this reason, they have made efforts to stabilize and develop the war-torn state.
Read More

Questioning the Role of the United Nations (UN)

Written by Muhammad Hayat Lak 12:12 pm

This research paper aims to evaluate the role of the United Nations Organization in light of some of the most highlighted events in its history, ranging from Rwanda to Kashmir; the crises mentioned will be summarized and analyzed to provide the reader with only the relevant information which is consistent with the central theme of this paper. In addition to this, the paper will also shed light upon the effectiveness of the UN when it comes to dealing with the world’s superpowers. A brief part of this paper will scrutinize the role of the International Court of Justice from a legal point of view, covering its overall structure and the extent to which its decisions are binding on the member Nations.
Read More

Alternatives to Egypt’s Suez Canal: Russia’s Northern Sea Route & Israel’s Ben-Gurion Canal

Written by Alyan Waheed and Muskan Moazzam 11:47 am

In March 2021, a container ship called “Ever Given” blocked Egypt’s Suez Canal for six days. On one hand, the blockage of the canal cost the world around $10 billion in trade each day, while on the other hand, it provided Russia and Israel with the perfect opportunity to garner support for their respective sea route projects. The authors, Alyan Waheed and Muskan Moazzam, note that Russia’s Northern Sea Route (NSR) and Israel’s Ben-Gurion Canal can act as alternatives to the Suez Canal and reduce the international community’s dependency on it. As such, to prevent states from opting for these routes, Egypt will have to make several changes – one of them is lowering the trade barriers.
Read More

Can Pakistan’s EVMs Survive Cyber Attacks?

Written by Taaha Rauf 11:47 am

The Cambridge Analytica scandal, the disclosure of the Pegasus spyware, and the hacking of Pakistan’s Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) have made the vulnerable nature of cyberspace abundantly clear. The author, Taaha Rauf, notes that Pakistan’s decision to use electronic voting machines (EVMs), in the 2023 general elections, comes with the ever-increasing threat of cyber attacks. He explains that since the US, Australia, and Canada, already employ technology for several purposes in their elections, they have undertaken measures to ensure their cybersecurity and election integrity. For Pakistan to do the same, he makes certain recommendations.
Read More

Linking Corruption, Democracy, and Economic Growth

Written by Syed Taha Mehdi 7:00 pm

Democracy is considered an integral part of the West’s foundation. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index and the Democracy Index, flawless democracies are the least corrupt. As such, since corruption hinders the economic growth of states, the extent to which a state is democratic should correlate to its economic development. The author, Syed Taha Mehdi, argues that in Asian countries like Pakistan, where the top 1% of the population controls 16.8% of the wealth, the political elite often exploit the state and sponsor electoral campaigns which benefit them. Hence, the policies enacted in weak democracies cater to the economic and political interests of the powerful few, often at the expense of the populace that has elected them.
Read More
Close
Click to access the login or register cheese

Submit your work