International Relations

Security and Human Rights as Explained by IR Theories

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The author explains the issues of security and human rights by illustrating a juxtaposition of the central concepts of international relations — constructivism, liberal institutionalism, normative theory, and offensive realism.
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How China Became an Economic Superpower?

Written by Ali Haider Saleem 11:47 am

China’s economic transformation in the last 40 years has had a huge impact on the global economy. This unprecedented economic scenario has attracted a lot of interest, particularly from developing countries looking to emulate China’s success. The author considers the infant industry model to explain China’s rapid industrialization and subsequent economic rise and explains how China’s long-term approach and facilitative policies have enabled local industries to become competitive worldwide. It also discusses what countries like Pakistan can learn from the Chinese experience with regards to strengthening their industrial base.
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Political and Economic Growth of Pakistan Vis-à-vis Bangladesh

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The economic and political growth of Pakistan and Bangladesh after 1971 can be seen as a reflection of their political culture. The author, Hurain Sheikh, explains that the political culture of Pakistan and Bangladesh is not new to elitism, nepotism, and corruption. She notes that while both states have a history of political instability, the economy of Bangladesh has flourished as compared to Pakistan. Keeping in mind how Bangladesh has managed to lower its unemployment and poverty rate, and improved its economy, she suggests a few measures to help Pakistan develop.
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Should Pakistan Recognize Israel?

Written by Mariam Khalil 12:27 pm

In the wake of the recent normalization of ties between varying Muslim states and Israel, Pakistan was rumored to be following suit. This stirred a debate within Pakistan – with people questioning the pro-Palestinian stance, and the rejection of Israel. The author discusses how Pakistan should continue to maintain the traditional policy towards Israel, and how it would be inadvisable to pursue normalization for limited gains.
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United States vs Russia: An Unabating Security Dilemma

Written by Hurain Sheikh 11:47 am

The long history of hostility and rivalry between Russia and the United States has internalized mutual suspicion. US political actors use the rhetoric of insecurity and ‘attack on democracy’ by Russia, while Putin builds on the anti-American sentiment. The author discusses how the United States is likely to keep considering Russia a threat due to the ongoing security dilemma, perceptions of identity and security, and implications of human rights violations.
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Neo-liberalism, Neo-Confucianism, and the Coronavirus: How China, the US, and Others Responded to the Pandemic

Written by Muhammad Souman Elah 11:47 am

Comparing neoliberalism, Neo-Confucianism, the states representing these ideological approaches and how they handled the pandemic, reveals that China as an authoritative Neo-Confucian state, has been more proficient in handling the virus than the neoliberal states. The author supports this argument by explaining how states like the US, the UK, Italy, Spain, and France have proven themselves incapable of handling the pandemic, while China has effectively limited the proliferation of the virus and ensured the safety of its citizens. The author argues that since the US focuses more on the distribution of power and less on administrative efficiency, it cannot react quickly to unpredictable circumstances.
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Israel and Trump: The Weakening Peace Prospects for Palestine

Written by Mahnoor Nafees 11:47 am

President Trump’s era proved to be markedly different from the traditional policies and narratives of past presidents. President Trump has pursued an increasingly biased foreign policy towards Israel – bestowing Israel with legitimation, and acceptance of its oppressive and violent policies in Palestine. By appointing like-minded officials on important positions, the president had made it clear that he would not be accommodating the Palestinians and their demands.
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Civil War in Myanmar and Human Rights Violations

Written by Nandini Sahani and Kajal Kumari 11:46 am

Myanmar has been subjected to a civil war since the time of its independence. In the last 7 decades, the state’s leadership has failed to ensure peace and stability; on the contrary, it has aided the instability and the failure of democracy. The military coup of 2021 and the human rights violations under the leadership of Aung San Suu Kyi have proved that militarization and human rights abuse are interlinked.
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The Strategic Importance of Central Asian States

Written by Fazal Rehman Kakar 10:47 am

At the center of the interests of major powers lies Central Asia, a region rich with untapped energy resources and economic markets. The author explains that while the region has immense potential for transnational and international cooperation, the security challenges and instability it faces, make it difficult for the Central Asian states to develop. Furthermore, the continuing instability has made foreign interventions almost necessary for these states.
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Hybrid Warfare and its Implications for Pakistan’s National Security Strategy

Written by Hassnain Moawia 10:47 am

Hybrid warfare is a unique blend of conventional and non-conventional methods of war. Pakistan has endured the constant threat of hybrid warfare since its inception – long before the term even came into existence. To maintain its defense, Pakistan has begun to familiarize itself with such propaganda.
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Eurasianism vs. Neo-Ottomanism in the Turkish Foreign Policy

Written by Necati Demircan 10:47 am

Turkey, formerly the Ottoman Empire, is said to have a foreign policy dictated by neo-Ottomanism, mainly by those who support the West. The author argues that neo-Ottomanism is incompatible with Turkey’s current foreign policies, and instead cites Eurasianism as the idea behind Turkey’s foreign policies.
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Disadvantages of Renewable Energy: The Untold Story

Written by G.N. Mahar 10:46 am

In the shift from non-renewable to green energy sources, human beings have ignored the disadvantages of renewable energy. The author explains that while the energy generated by solar panels, wind turbines, and biomass farms, is renewable, the raw materials used for the construction of equipment or structures to harness it, is not. The author further asserts that in our efforts to tackle climate change, we have been more focused on preserving our way of life than protecting the planet responsible for sustaining it.
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US Policy of Containment Against China

Written by Sidra Nasheen 10:47 am

Due to China’s increasing economic and military influence, the US feels threatened. The author notes that the United States has devised a containment policy against China to prevent it from dominating the US spheres of influence, and impeding the US interests. She further explains that the Abraham Accords, signed on 13th August 2020 between Israel, the UAE and the US, are a part of this containment policy.
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China in the Indian Ocean: India’s Dilemma

Written by Samrah Aslam 10:47 am

The seas and oceans are the great highways and sea zones are considered to be the new war zones because of the increasing significance of Sea Lines of Communication (SLOCs). China’s increasing maritime interests in the Indian Ocean and the strategies opted by China to gain that command on the sea, especially in the Indian Ocean are creating a security paradox and competition in the Indian Ocean mainly because of the strategic connotation of important choke points.
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The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue: A New Security Landscape in the Asia-Pacific

Written by Aneesa Aslam 1:47 pm

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue is an informal security alliance aimed at creating a rule-based order in the Asia Pacific region. The Japanese Prime Minister at the Confluence of the Two Seas gave the idea of Security Diamond that would ensure the interests of like-minded countries. The Quad states – Australia, India, Japan, and the United States – have a common threat perception in the region that led to the revival of Quad after ten years of long hiatus.
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The US Intervention in Syria: Complications or Resolutions?

Written by Kashaf Sohail 2:00 pm

A minor conflict that arose in 2011 turned Syria into a battleground of a full-fledged civil war within a few years involving the regional and major powers. This research paper will unfold in a sequence of explanations of the factors that contributed to the surge of a conflict and what interested the United States to intervene. Moreover, the diplomatic activities that took place and how Russia, Iran, and Turkey contributed are discussed.
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Saudi Arabia and Iran: A Severed Past & a Bitter Present

Written by Faizan Ali 1:47 pm

Saudi Arabia and Iran have had a fractured relationship, and this animosity was triggered during the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Both nation-states represent the two major Islamic sects, that is, Shia and Sunni, thus fueling both states with animosity. The support for opposing groups, the inception of proxies, and the initiation of counter actions towards each other began as a result of the security dilemma between the two states.
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