International Relations

Paradigm Shift provides readers with acute and thought-provoking research papers on international relations (IR). Whether one wants to learn about IR frameworks such as realism or the rise of the political right in Europe, Paradigm Shift is your answer.

Is Military Force Effective in Responding to a Terrorist Insurgency?

Written by Sarmad Ishfaq 7:02 pm

Military force becomes mandatory when a deadly insurgent group, the likes of an ISIS or the LTTE, is present in a country. However,...

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The Link Between Culture and Sustainable Development

Written by Amna Babar 6:47 pm

Culture is not considered an antecedent to sustainable development – even though it largely impacts practices surrounding education,...

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Pakistan and India Will Go to War Again

Written by Sarmad Ishfaq 6:47 pm

The paper describes the major reasons why Pakistan and India will go to war again. It asserts that while Pakistan has reduced extremism in...

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Troubled Waters: Revisionist China & The South China Sea Dispute

Written by Mehwish Kayani and Kinza Shah 6:23 pm

The South China Sea is important due to economic, military, and strategic factors. This region, critical for military purposes, is rich in...

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Virtual Water & UAE’s Foreign Policy with Iran: Neo-realist & Neo-liberal Perspectives

Written by Maryam Salman 6:47 pm

The virtual water trade, a concept introduced by Tony Allan, is the hidden flow of water if food or other commodities are traded from one...

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Coronavirus and Migration: Redefining Global Movement

Written by Amna Babar 6:30 pm

Coronavirus, like every other pandemic, has acutely impacted migration patterns. The adoption of containment measures and border closures...

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Hezbollah and Its Influence on the Media

Written by Noor Ul Huda 1:15 am

This paper demonstrates the versatility and vulnerability of the media concerning the power and position of overt militant organizations -...

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The Curious Case of Syria and State Terrorism

Written by Maryam Salman 1:14 am

Rarely acknowledged, there are many concrete examples of state terrorism in history. Syria and state terrorism are analyzed in this paper...

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America’s Humanitarian Intervention Failure Post-Cold War

Written by Saba Imran 1:05 am

To discover the reason behind the United States's failure in integrating the humanitarian intervention policy, the paper traces the...

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Pakistan-India Trade: Potential and Pitfalls

Written by Sarmad Ishfaq 6:44 pm

Despite the massive potential, trade between Pakistan and India has historically been plagued by many problems – which have increased...

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The U.S. vs China in Africa: A Quest for Economic Domination

Written by Waleed Yawer 1:27 am

The paper focuses on the current methods the U.S. and China are using to integrate themselves in the African economy – and deliberates...

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The UAE’s War Against the Islamic State (ISIS)

Written by Mehr Farhan 10:20 pm

Since ISIS's inception, it has devastated the geopolitical landscape of the Middle East and beyond. The UAE rose as an unlikely hero in the...

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The Ambiguous Definition of Terrorism

Written by Raja Mansoor 9:09 pm

To date, the concept of terrorism is without a universally accepted definition. This has severe practical repercussions in global politics....

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The Impact of Remittances on Poverty in Pakistan

Written by Hassan Nasir, Hamid Haider Gilani and Hamza Butt 9:34 pm

Poverty in Pakistan is a matter of grave concern and significance. This paper examines the effects of remittances on poverty reduction in...

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What Are the Parallels Between Boko Haram and the TTP?

Written by Fiza Siddiq 9:21 pm

The paper compares the ideology, emergence, rise, and demise of terror groups Boko Haram (in Nigeria) and the TTP (Tehreek-e-Taliban...

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