Javeria Abbas analyzes the factors that are responsible for the adoption and the rejection of cryptocurrency in Pakistan. She tries to relate each factor responsible for the rejection of cryptocurrency in Pakistan with the Islamic finance system. This paper also gives an insight into the bitcoin transaction system, how bitcoin is used, and how its usage is classified as unislamic.
Abandoning Retribution: Embracing Restorative Justice through Social Institutions in Pakistan and Beyond
Suleman Yousaf explores the role of society in crime prevention; from peer influence to moral reprimands to the loss of social status, he aims to discover potential alternatives to retributive justice. He delves into a nuanced understanding of social status in deterring crime, drawing on Howard S. Becker’s labeling theory. Here, the theory is used to examine how the fear of being labeled and losing esteemed social standing can act as a deterrent against criminal behavior. The study involved surveying 34 participants, and the findings support the proposed hypothesis that the fear of losing social status can indeed deter crime, making crime prevention by social intervention as crucial as investigation, prosecution, and conviction. The paper also proposes a mechanism for establishing social institutions that operate through the “fluidity of identity,” which involves suspending the social status of potential offenders until they embrace civility and abandon the path of criminality.
Yashfa Ahsan reflects on Pakistan’s intricate position amid the Sino-US rivalry. The South Asian state’s strategic location demands a multifaceted and balanced approach in its foreign policy and international relations. The author acknowledges the implications of India and the US’s engagement in the Indian Ocean Region for Pakistan’s security and economy. Bearing this in mind, she emphasizes that, with key players like India, Iran, and Afghanistan drawn into this rivalry, Pakistan must establish itself as a reliable economic and strategic partner for the states involved.
Pakistan possesses a hydropower potential of up to 60,000 MW, with about 40% of it coming from Gilgit-Baltistan and the Kashmir region. Although the natural topography and challenging terrain make it difficult and expensive to bring up grid electrification to most places, particularly in the northern highland parts, Daniyal Bin Tanveer presents Micro Hydro Power (MHP) projects as an interesting policy solution. The paper shall first discuss why a lack of energy production in Pakistan is a massive issue that needs to be addressed, followed by an analysis of the prevailing dynamics of the MHP market. What will follow is a look at this paper’s findings, followed by a proposal of potential policy measures that could be utilized to develop a network of MHPs where possible. Lastly, the economic implications of possibly adopting this policy measure will also be presented, before a brief conclusion ties the entire discussion together.
The paper emphasizes the importance of civic education for a truly democratic state. It is certainly Pakistan’s best bet for promoting active political participation, increasing civic engagement in political activities, and encouraging healthy voting behaviors, while improving the constitutional literacy of the populace. This paper also tackles ways to improve civic education and engagement in Pakistan by analyzing the German model of civic education.
Public interest litigation is a type of litigation where courts provide civil relief. This is usually for acts infringing on public interests and fundamental rights, that are provided in Articles 8-28 of the constitution. Mehwish Batool explores the constitutional foundation and significance of these judicial powers in Pakistan, invoked under Article 184(3) and Article 199 of the constitution. The Supreme Court has even used its judicial powers to protect endangered species and preserve wildlife through these articles. An example of this is the Province of Sindh vs. Laal Khan chandio case (2016 SCMR 48).
Neorealism views power as a tool for advancing the objectives of the state. This paper reveals that, from a neorealist standpoint, the main objective of the Pakistan-India conflict regarding Kashmir is to advance national interests. By incorporating Kashmir, the nation would gain enormous advantages in terms of social, political, and economic development due to the region’s abundance of resources and natural beauty.
Brain drain, also known as the emigration of highly trained labour or talented individuals, has been a contentious issue in the developing world since the 1960s. The mobility of human capital or skilled labour has significant implications for both the economic and political spheres.
Noor-Ul-Haya looks at how our relationship with our national language changed over the decades and is no longer celebrated the way it used to be. She discusses whether the use of the Urdu language has actually been reduced, and then traces down the possible reasons for the decline.
Information and Communication Technology has revolutionized the globe with its far-reaching implications in every sector. It can provide a unique opportunity to strategically address the sustainability goals and ensure a sustainable, healthy and equitable future. Sarah Faraz foresees the utility of ICT in not only achieving the SDGs but also raising the standards of living for women in Pakistan. She also discusses the benefits that will be secured by the application of ICT in solving water, sanitation and energy problems, and using the digital space for telemedicine and remote education.
Human development is one of the most vital measures of a country’s progress, but successive governments have failed to improve human development standards in Pakistan. Ariba Khan Waheed and Salah ud din Yousaf examine the contemporary human development disparities in Pakistan, both between provinces and within provinces. They also identify the factors that contribute to the glaring disparities in human development.
In its quest to contain the Chinese influence by supporting India, the US has compelled Pakistan to seek an alliance with Russia and China. Huda Raza and Sher Ali Shahid analyze the Indo-US strategic partnership, particularly in the realm of nuclear technology, and its impact on the balance of power in South Asia. The authors note that the India-US nuclear deal represents a shift in the US foreign policy from Pakistan to India. Although the two parties claim that the deal is for peaceful purposes, it poses a threat to the stability of South Asia and elevates Pakistan’s security dilemma.
Women’s rights, which are a key facet of Islam, are increasingly being viewed through a more ‘secular’ lens in Pakistan. The tension that now exists around this cause has caused multiple riots in the name of protecting ‘nationalist’ values. Mareeha Ahmad uses a qualitative approach and proposes the idea of using Islamic frameworks to help the progression of women’s rights in Pakistan.
Kanz-ul-eman differentiates between hate speech and free speech. She explains how hate speech has thrived under the umbrella of freedom of speech and become widespread in Pakistan and the rest of the world. Various forms of media are being used to disseminate hate speech to incite violence against different groups. The author notes that terrorist groups, in particular, have taken a liking to social media platforms to spread harmful messages and for recruitment purposes.
In order to address the ongoing surge of plastic waste generation, Haya Sultan created an online questionnaire on the SurveyGizmo app and analyzed the results on the SPSS software to understand the attitude of the public towards plastic pollution. The purpose of this study was to assess the per capita estimation of plastic wastes generated at the domestic level during the Covid-19 period. Sustainable practices and a principle model are needed to mitigate this worldwide problem because it has a significant impact on solid waste management.
Water scarcity has become one of the most pressing matters in Pakistan. In 1990, Pakistan reached the water stress line and today, only 23% of its urban population and 14% of its rural population has access to safe drinking water. The author, Kashaf Imran, notes that on top of several other contributing factors, the mismanagement of water resources has prevented Pakistan from properly tackling its water crisis.
Using a general thematic approach, this paper examines the positive and negative externalities of the COVID-19 pandemic on Pakistan’s economy. The author, Umme Ammara, explores the different cases of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) from China, India, Bangladesh and Kazakhstan to understand the different measures the Pakistani government can initiate to strengthen SMEs. The findings suggest that unleashing the potential of the SME sector requires the need for institutional change in a country intending to build a human economy where human development is the main area of concern.