Javeria Abbas analyzes the factors that are responsible for the adoption and the rejection of cryptocurrency in Pakistan. She tries to relate each factor responsible for the rejection of cryptocurrency in Pakistan with the Islamic finance system. This paper also gives an insight into the bitcoin transaction system, how bitcoin is used, and how its usage is classified as unislamic.
Abandoning Retribution: Embracing Restorative Justice through Social Institutions in Pakistan and Beyond
Suleman Yousaf explores the role of society in crime prevention; from peer influence to moral reprimands to the loss of social status, he aims to discover potential alternatives to retributive justice. He delves into a nuanced understanding of social status in deterring crime, drawing on Howard S. Becker’s labeling theory. Here, the theory is used to examine how the fear of being labeled and losing esteemed social standing can act as a deterrent against criminal behavior. The study involved surveying 34 participants, and the findings support the proposed hypothesis that the fear of losing social status can indeed deter crime, making crime prevention by social intervention as crucial as investigation, prosecution, and conviction. The paper also proposes a mechanism for establishing social institutions that operate through the “fluidity of identity,” which involves suspending the social status of potential offenders until they embrace civility and abandon the path of criminality.
Yashfa Ahsan reflects on Pakistan’s intricate position amid the Sino-US rivalry. The South Asian state’s strategic location demands a multifaceted and balanced approach in its foreign policy and international relations. The author acknowledges the implications of India and the US’s engagement in the Indian Ocean Region for Pakistan’s security and economy. Bearing this in mind, she emphasizes that, with key players like India, Iran, and Afghanistan drawn into this rivalry, Pakistan must establish itself as a reliable economic and strategic partner for the states involved.
Amna Naveed analyzes the undeniable link between food insecurity and political instability in a state. While considered a non-traditional security threat, food insecurity directly influences the state military’s retention power, financial spending, and the psychological well-being of the soldiers. By considering the case of Africa’s food crisis, she reveals the impact of capitalism, colonialism, and war on the people of the continent. She emphasizes that if left unchecked, food insecurity can act as one of the factors responsible for protests, insurgencies, civil wars, and revolutions.
Divided into three sections, the first part of the paper examines the concept of “strategic partnership” as a new framework in international relations and intentional cooperation. It also examines how this concept has become integrated into China’s foreign policy, and the reasons behind Beijing’s over-reliance on it. The second section examines China’s historical relations with Iran up to the announcement of the so-called comprehensive strategic partnership, focusing on the motives and goals of both states. The third section highlights the main challenges that are expected in Beijing’s strategic partnership with Tehran.
Andrew Jackson’s Democratic Party and Abraham Lincoln’s Republican Party continue to dominate American politics today. Have you ever wondered how the two-party system in the United States evolved? This informative paper explores this question and examines the key changes in these two political parties from the nation’s beginning.
Muhammad Usama Siddiqi and Brilliant Windy Khairunnisa aim to explain the factors that led Russia to securitise Ukraine through the lens of the securitisation theory. According to the theory, issues that are fundamentally political are considered and analysed from a security perspective. They use this theory to effectively frame the actors and threats in the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
Hindutva has created divisions in Indian society by forging a ‘Muslim threat’ to legitimize the BJP’s anti-Muslim acts. Nishat Shuja analyzes Modi’s aim of creating a Hindu Rashtra (state) through Hindu supremacist policies and Muslim marginalization. The 2019 Citizenship (Amendment) Act, the revocation of Kashmir’s autonomous status, and the Kerala hijab ban are cases in point for the systemic discrimination against the Muslim minority. Undoubtedly, PM Modi and right-wing Hindu nationalism threaten India’s constitutional foundations by creating a Hindu Rashtra.
History has seen many examples of sports diplomacy helping states to foster good relations. Football diplomacy involving Israelis and Arabs, the revolutionary ping-pong diplomacy between China and the US, and the cricket diplomacy between India and Pakistan are major case studies elaborating on the significance of sports diplomacy. Masooma Zahra explores the demonstration of this soft power in exhaustive detail, referring to its examples and limitations.
This research aims to explore the impact of Brexit, the most historic event to occur on the European continent since the fall of the Berlin wall. The findings prove that while Brexit has given substance to factors (like taking back control of immigration and regaining sovereignty and national identity), it was not a rational economic decision. The brits realized their mistake in the face of the severe economic hardships that the UK had to face post-Brexit.
Amid climate concerns, states are now devising ways to change and control the weather. However, this initiative could tempt global powers into using weather to gain military advantage. Muhammad Sajjad and Saba Kiran review international frameworks and several studies to demonstrate how weather modification technology can be used in future wars.
When it comes to climate change, the contribution of giant corporations to global warming is often overlooked. Maryam Ibrahim notes that one of the main causes of global warming is the emission of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels, and this is where energy corporations come in. The author takes the example of Berkshire Hathaway and Saudi Aramco to shed light on climate denial, and the lack of accountability associated with these corporations’ environmental activities.
Hamna Binte Waqar examines the change in the cyber security realm with the advent of the NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware. After targeting several countries, governments, and individuals, the software has created an uproar in international politics and media. It is now seen as a threat to the national security of states and as an unconventional weapon capable of extracting private information and generating propaganda. While Pegasus has faced continuous backlash, the need to adapt to the transition in the modes of warfare has slowly made it a sought-after weapon in the contemporary security market.
Meerab Malik discusses the struggle many low-income women and girls face while trying to afford menstrual products. She uses data from primary and secondary sources to try and understand the consequences of this ‘period poverty’ in their daily lives.
Before being banned, nuclear testing in the Global South had been a major issue for leaders and citizens in those countries. The West found the Global South’s soil to be fair game for nuclear testing while preserving the sanctity of their own lands. In this essay, Dina Tawfik proposes and answers the following research question: to what extent have the Global South’s antinuclear movements had an impact on curbing the usage of nuclear weapons as well as nuclear testing, and on developing a non-proliferation global norm, and nuclear disarmament?
Contemporary publications identify Indo-Pacific as a hub of great power politics. The great powers, China and the US, are striving their best to enhance their sphere of influence across the region through BRI and FOIP respectively. These two strategies bring some opportunities along with certain challenges for ASEAN member states. In this research paper, the structural realism lens is used to analyze the foreign policy situation of Malaysia under these circumstances.
Since the 1900s, the Canadian party system has evolved from a two-party system to a multiparty. Hurain Sheikh analyzes Canada’s party system in the light of Duverger’s law and Johnston’s study of the system. She argues that the present-day party system in Canada is not based upon polarization but rather on moderate pluralism. Since most Canadians have moderate views on social, economical, and political policies, even the parties with extreme ideological beliefs had to gradually adopt a more moderate stance to appeal to the masses.