On 15th December 2022, Bosnia finally achieved candidate status for EU membership – the first step in a long and complex journey of EU accession that the country embarked on back in 2016. There’s a cry of jubilation in the Balkan state and euphoric optimism for a prosperous future. However, entry into the EU won’t be plain sailing for a country clogged up with a tripartite presidency, ethnic dissonance, legislative gridlocks, and numerous other challenges. The 14-point Copenhagen Criteria, followed by 35 chapters of the EU acquis, must be implemented by Bosnia to secure a permanent place in the EU.
The Franco-Prussian War or the War of 1870 is often deemed by historians as the conflict that shaped modern Europe. It was a confrontation between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia that took place from July 1870 to May 1871. The war was a battle of politico-territorial interests where the unconsolidated German states aspired to unify and create a powerful German nation-state. France, however, fearful of encirclement and alteration of the balance of power, aimed to maintain its status quo as the major European power.
For centuries, diplomacy is a term often associated with high politics; an important instrument of foreign policy, a tool to mitigate traditional security issues, and a means to ensure peaceful bilateral relations. However, in a world where the concept of security is widening and deepening, the scope of diplomacy has also enlarged to encompass many tools, types, problem areas, and actors. In the contemporary multi-polar world order characterized by globalization, digital revolution, and newly emerging economies, it has become indispensable to recognise economic diplomacy as a paramount instrument of foreign policy. Duaa Ayaz sheds light on economic diplomacy as a concept and its evolution, its growing significance in the 21st-century liberal order, its manifestations in light of case studies, the challenges facing it, and its future.
The Venezuelan presidential predicament takes a new turn as the opposition-controlled National Assembly dissolves Guaidó’s interim government ahead of presidential elections expected in 2024. What led to this removal and what’s next for the petrostate of Latin America?