China has exhibited a deep interest in developing the Gwadar Port of Pakistan, under the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), for the enhancement of its strategic and economic benefits, while India is investing in the Chabahar Port under the tripartite Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) with Iran and Afghanistan, with the drive to counter China’s growing presence in the region. Both ports are situated at the international energy trading route and provide connectivity to different regions of the world including Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe. Such equalizing behavior of both states is not just causing problems for them but also for the neighboring states such as Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan, in this regard, which are the key stakeholders in the construction of these ports. The authors, Ms. Kinza Shah and Mehwish Kayani, look into the geostrategic and geo-economic importance of both ports. This paper also explores the stances given by the major states of the world over the construction of Chabahar and Gwadar ports in accordance with their national interests and ties with the major stakeholders of both the ports i.e. India. Iran, China and Pakistan.
The South China Sea is important due to economic, military, and strategic factors. This region, critical for military purposes, is rich in resources like oil and gas. The question remains: Will China fall victim to the lust for resources? Or will it use diplomacy to create a win-win situation?
Religious indoctrination in madrasas has played a huge role in fueling sectarianism in Pakistan since the time of President Zia. The paper discusses the history of sectarianism and indoctrination in the country and how it worsened after 9/11.