With the progression of cyber technology, threats to the cyber security of civilians have increased, particularly in the last decade. The author, Syed Qasim Abbas, notes that while the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) ensures the safety of civilians and their property in an armed conflict, it fails to provide adequate protection and punishment in the case of cyber warfare, in the absence of an ongoing war. Moreover, it fails to categorize civilian data—which is easier to breach when outdated technology is involved—as civilian property. This leaves civilian populations vulnerable to cyberattacks and perpetrators free to do as they please, thus elevating the risks of a humanitarian crisis. In light of the limitations of IHL, the author recommends certain changes to extend the applicability of the law to cyberattacks against civilians and reduce humanitarian risks.
Over the past few centuries, global trade and economic ties have strengthened, creating an economic interdependence between states. This interdependence, according to economic liberals, is the reason why no war at the scale of the World Wars has occurred since 1945. They argue that global peace is positively proportional to economic interdependence and that economic gains and common interests prevent states from resorting to war. However, the author, Syed Qasim Abbas, refutes this and asserts that the decreasing interest of states in armed conflict is not solely due to economic interdependence, but rather due to the collusion of many phenomena. He explains that while liberals support interdependence’s role in obtaining peace, realists, Leninists, and mercantilists prove that the pursuit of economic gains and interdependence lead to conflict – not peace.