Muhammad Shahzad Akram

Mr Muhammad Shahzad Akram is a Research Officer at the Center for International Strategic Studies (CISS), AJK. He holds an MPhil degree in International Relations from Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad.

Israel’s Begin Doctrine

Written by Muhammad Shahzad Akram 11:38 am

The Israeli government, led by Prime Minister Menachem Begin, believed that the acquisition of nuclear weapons by Iraq would pose an existential threat to the Jewish state. That was the beginning of the Begin Doctrine which called for military action against countries or groups that carry out terrorist attacks against Israeli citizens or interests. The Begin Doctrine has also been used to justify Israel’s military operations in the Middle East, including the bombing of the Osirak nuclear reactor in Iraq in 1981 and the attack on the Syrian nuclear facility in 2007.
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An Introduction to Strategy

Written by Muhammad Shahzad Akram 8:01 pm

“An Introduction to Strategy” was originally published in French in 1965 by General André Beaufre. In his condensed book (138 pages), he defines military strategy before proceeding to discuss its patterns and evolution.
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Pakistan’s Foreign Policy, 1947-2016: A Concise History

Written by Muhammad Shahzad Akram 8:05 pm

In “Pakistan’s Foreign Policy, 1947-2016: A Concise History,” a former diplomat and foreign minister of Pakistan, Abdul Sattar, charts the foreign policy of Pakistan from its inception. It is another book strongly recommended to CSS candidates because of the social and political aspects being used to understand Pakistan’s foreign policies.
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