Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is recognized as an important aspect of increasing the employability of workers. However, the author notes that the current model of TVET employed in Pakistan places more emphasis on domain-specific expertise, in an unpredictable world where transferrable skills are necessary for job security. To reform the TVET system he proposes a competency-based approach, along with the incorporation of job crafting behavior and transferrable skills, to be used in TVET in the pre-employment phase, not only will the employability of workers increase but so will the job security and their motivation to work.
In the face of global market competition, Pakistan’s industries need to effectively utilize the factors of production. The degree of competitiveness in the state’s domestic and international market determines the survival of its industries and economy. Noting this, Adil Abbasi, a member of the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants (ICMA), asserts that cost auditing across the industries of Pakistan will aid in meeting the challenges of market competition. He explains that while cost auditing is implemented in Pakistan, it is only limited to a few industries and thus, the state cannot fully benefit from it.