In “Buffalo Nationalism: A Critique of Spiritual Fascism,” Kacha Ilaiah Shepherd argues that inequality is embedded in Hinduism due to its Brahminic philosophy. He criticizes India’s caste system and compares India’s oppression of its minorities and lower castes with the buffalo. While the cow is revered in Hindu philosophy, the buffalo on the other hand is demonized. Ilaiah, while criticizing India’s “divide and rule” policy, calls for the construction of a new form of nationalism that promotes equality and justice.
Gul-e-Zahra is an undergraduate student, studying international relations at National Defence University, Islamabad. Her interests include social issues, race relations, and feminism.