In the first half of the 1960s, Congo had been involved in a devastating civil war, which not only resulted in hundreds of thousands of casualties but also laid the foundation for the continuous destruction and exploitation of the state. In her analysis of this crisis, the author, Lyba Mobeen, notes that the situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo worsened due to the involvement of Belgium – the former colonizer of Congo– and the two superpowers of that time – the US and the USSR. She explains that, during the Cold War, a proxy war had started in Congo where each of these three states fought to achieve their interests, and played specific roles to bring it under their control.
The social, political, and economic landscape of Saudi Arabia is being dynamically reformed under Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman’s rule. Providing newfound freedom to women, limiting gender taboos, and promoting education and recreation, Saudi Arabia is rapidly moving towards modernism. In this paper, the author discusses the underlying factors driving these changes – with a focus on the aims and objectives of the ‘modern’ Vision 2030 program.