The Second Persian Gulf War, also known as the Iraq War (2003-11) occurred a decade after the First Persian Gulf War. The Second Gulf War consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the American and British Forces formed a coalition with several other countries to bring down the government of President Saddam Hussein. The second phase of the war occurred when Iraqis started to rebel against the US-led occupation of Iraq, and the war finally concluded with the US withdrawing its forces from Iraq in 2011.
The Persian war, also known as the Gulf War (1990-91), was an international conflict that involved the United States of America, Iraq and Kuwait. Galvanized by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990, the Gulf War was the first crisis after the Cold War era.
The Middle East Quartet was set up in 2002, primarily to help mediate the Middle East peace negotiations. It has also been supporting Palestinian economic development and institution-building in preparation for eventual statehood. The platform has an informal structure, but it provides fluidity to members to navigate crises.
Russian President Vladimir Putin met with Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan in Sochi on August 5th, to discuss a wide array of topics. This included the strengthening of economic ties between the two. This meeting follows Türkiye’s masterful diplomacy of acting as a mediator between Ukraine and Russia, which has allowed Ukraine grains to be exported again.