Seemal Nadeem examines the climate change policies of Pakistan (2012 and 2021) to identify how terms like ‘sustainable’, ‘mitigation’, and ‘adaptation’ have been used. She also explains how these terms became a part of the development theory, and the implications these terms have for Pakistan and its policies.
Venezuela and Colombia are bordering countries in South America that have a shared history and culture, since they were both under the Spanish Empire in the 19th century. Since their independence, their relationship has been hot and cold due to varying issues. Seemal Nadeem discusses the roller coaster-like relationship, and comments on the neighbours’ biggest issue i.e. the border dispute, which has caused tensions on both sides for decades. With the recent restoration of diplomatic relations between the two neighbours, there is hope for development in trade and the resolution of border disputes.
After downsizing their joint military exercises in 2017, the US and South Korea have once again upped the scale of the drills following North Korea’s refusal to negotiate with Seoul. Seemal Nadeem takes a look at these South Korea-US military exercises, termed “Ulchi Freedom Shield,” and assesses what they represent in the rivalry between the US and North Korea.
On 11th August 2022, Estonia and Latvia followed the path of their Baltic neighbour Lithuania and exited the 16+1 cooperation format. The format represented the economic cooperation between China and the 16 Central and Eastern Europe Countries (CEEC). Seemal Nadeem explores the purpose of the 16+1 format and the reasons for the Baltic states’ departure.