Ms Zainab Haseeb is studying IR at Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore. She has previously participated in WWF's Eco-internship.
The 21st century marks the era of debates on non-traditional security matters. With every passing year, states are becoming more and more concerned not just about issues of sovereignty or territorial integrity but also about their resources. The world is in the hyper-globalization phase, leading to the accelerated overpopulation phenomenon and a massive concern for the state: resource depletion.
The South Asia region stands home to huge populations, which is the cause behind its high level of poverty, low standard of life, and economic crisis. Pakistan, a South Asian state, remains an example. One of the leading risks in Pakistan is poor water management. To preserve the depleting water resources, states like Pakistan need to acquire water management tactics from around the world. Israel is one of the states which has introduced successful water management initiatives.
A Non-traditional Security Threat to Pakistan
Water is a non-traditional security issue that is serving as a threat to human security in Pakistan. Since its inception, Pakistan has been facing the challenge of water division thanks to its neighbour, India. In 1960, the Indus Basin Treaty authorized the creation and equal division of dams.
With each passing day, the replenishment rate of water tables in Pakistan is decreasing. For agrarian countries, this is a major crisis as it is going to have a direct impact on the productivity of the land. The lack of water management leads to wastage of clean water, evaporation, salinity, water logging, etc.
The salinity hazards are affecting 50% of Sindh’s land, leading to an estimated loss of 20 billion rupees per year. In regions such as Tharparkar, the lack of water supply has created a life-threatening situation for the occupants.
Israel’s Water Management
Israel is a state in the Middle Eastern region that is known for its desert-like characteristics and naturally dry environment. The region is known to have states competing for water resources as its physical attributes make water a scarce resource. However, Israel has introduced water-conservatory practices that have led to an adequate water supply to all sections of land.
The land of Golan, which it obtained during the Arab-Israel wars from Syria, is one of Israel’s water sources. Israel also aided other states in the region through the Jordan Valley Unified Water Plan in collaboration with the US. Moreover, it has introduced water laws and technologies that help attach legal significance to water reservoirs so that people observe civic duties towards its management and preservation.
The Water Law
The Israeli water law is known for its exceptional foreign depth and flexibility. After its creation, the Israeli Parliament passed four different water laws that dealt with using and recycling water to benefit from it at maximum levels. The purpose of the water law is to declare that water is not people’s private property. It is a national resource for which people have ownership and have entrusted the government to use for their maximum benefit.
These sorts of legislation are not very common and cannot be passed in today’s political climate, no matter how much they need. The legislative structure of Israel hence remains the essential foundation for extending comprehensive codes for water management policies. To put this law to work, the government of Israel uses various technological resources to ensure water conservation.
Israel and Its Water Technology
An essential technology under the water management policies of Israel is desalination technology. This technological breakthrough has led to economically feasible initiatives that guarantee the conservation of water resources. Moreover, through these technologies, Israel is achieving its hydro-ideological aim of supporting agriculture.
Drip Irrigation System
Other technologies include Israel’s drip irrigation system, contributing to a 1600% increase in local farming produce. The recycling technology of Israel has led to the restoration of 86% of sewage water used for daily activities by people and to support supporting the country’s irrigation system.
Right now, 50% of the water needed for irrigation is taken through water-cleansing plants. This remains in line with the goal of the state to practice agriculture in dry land. With practices such as these, Israel has acquired sustainable technologies that benefit it in managing resources.
A Maritime Orientation
Another significant shift is the one observed in Israel’s maritime orientation. The cause behind this change was the introduction of maritime practices that benefit Israel regarding water management and other resources. For instance, Israel collaborates with its maritime forces to obtain energy dependence on offshore gas reserves.
Secondly, it is to initiate the seawater desalination project to meet the state’s water needs. To execute it, Israel has expanded its navy platforms to a great extent with much acceleration. This maritime expansion provides it with a strategic edge as well. Israel is devising sustainable strategies and making use of all technology at its disposal to meet the people’s water demands.
Over the years, Israel has expanded its technological possessions to conserve its resources. The vital action to notice here is that Israel introduced systematic procedures and legislation backing such practices. Pakistan is a state which is constantly threatened by a water crisis. Therefore, it needs to adopt these conservatory strategies and invest in technological infrastructures to help it fulfill its water needs.
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