The Bosnian Genocide: The UN’s Ultimate Failure
Nothing explains the United Nations’ peacekeeping failure better than the Bosnian War (1992-1995). Despite the presence of UN peacekeepers, the war culminated in one of the most horrendous massacres of all time—the Srebrenica massacre. The United Nations’ incompetence in preventing the genocide of the Bosnian Muslims, and the great powers’ hesitance to intervene cost the world the lives of more than 100,000 Bosniaks.
The Sociopolitical Freedoms in North & South Korea
There is a marked difference in the political systems of South Korea and North Korea, but human rights issues prevail in both countries. The paper analyzes certain laws that limit freedom in South Korea, and the overall political system in North Korea. Momina Munir Khan concludes that both countries limit individual autonomy in terms of freedom of choice and expression, but the framework of South Korea is still lenient. North Korea, however, has designed its system through mass internalization, to limit the freedom of any sort – humanitarian, social, and political.
Myanmar Executions: Four Activists Killed by the State
The recent execution of four pro-democracy activists in Myanmar is the first time in decades that the state has handed out the death penalty. Myanmar’s military government has received backlash and criticism from human rights activists and the international community for its unjustified acts of terror. Maryam Ibrahim notes that even the threat of losing their lives has not deterred the supporters of democracy in Myanmar from raising their voices.
The Genocide in Rwanda Explained Through Social Identity Theory
Iman Faisal analyzes the 1994 Rwandan genocide through the lens of the social identity theory. She explains that the Hutus and Tutsis each viewed themselves as in-group and the other as out-group. As such, they associated certain norms, stereotypes, and insecurities with what they considered to be the “others”.
Hate Speech vs Free Speech Explained
Kanz-ul-eman differentiates between hate speech and free speech. She explains how hate speech has thrived under the umbrella of freedom of speech and become widespread in Pakistan and the rest of the world. Various forms of media are being used to disseminate hate speech to incite violence against different groups. The author notes that terrorist groups, in particular, have taken a liking to social media platforms to spread harmful messages and for recruitment purposes.
Women of Afghanistan under Taliban Rule
Since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, the state has been in a constant state of turmoil, the brunt of which Afghan women had to face. The status of women’s rights worsened after the Taliban first came to power in 1996. The women of Afghanistan were forced to marry Taliban soldiers, deprived of their right to education, healthcare, and employment, and were subjected to violence and public executions. Despite the claims of the current Taliban regime, the past cannot be erased. After the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, the relative freedom that Afghan women had gained over the years is being threatened, and they fear for their lives once again.
Stranded Migrants at the Poland-Belarus Border: Victims of Politics & False Promises
President Lukashenko of Belarus has been accused of using social media to bring thousands of migrants (mainly from the Middle East) to Belarus. The migrants come in hopes of entering the European Union. Poland, Latvia, and Lithuania have now issued state emergency at the borders, leaving migrants stranded. Belarus states that it will assist the EU with the crisis – only if the EU removes the sanctions imposed on Belarus.
The Biden-Xi Summit: Deliberating Taiwan, Trade, HR Violations & Climate Change
The much-awaited Biden-Xi virtual summit took place on 15th November to deliberate and resolve the contentious issues between the two states. The meeting focused on four key areas: Taiwan, trade relations, human rights violations, and climate change.
State-sponsored Terrorism in the Syrian War
In the past decade, Syria’s stability and economy have plummeted to the ground. Terrorism is rampant in the failed state, with the regime of Bashar al-Assad itself perpetrating violence against the civilian population and destroying the state’s infrastructure. Asadullah Khan Wazir, a broadcast journalist, notes that through the use of state-sponsored terrorism, the Syrian regime aims to prevent the population from supporting the rebel groups and offering an alternative regime. As a result, 83,500 civilians have been killed by Bashar al-Assad’s regime and its allies since the Syrian war first started.
The Civil War in Yemen and the Violation of Children’s Rights
The ongoing civil war in Yemen has aggravated the plight of Yemeni children. Despite the state being a signatory of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the government of Yemen has completely failed to preserve the basic rights of the children. The humanitarian crisis in Yemen has put the physical and mental health of an entire generation at stake. The author, Farhan Ijaz, notes that the warring parties have committed grave human rights violations, deprived the children of their right to an education, and forced them to take up arms. Furthermore, due to the war, the number of internally displaced children, the outbreaks of infectious diseases, child marriages, and child labor in Yemen have increased at an unprecedented rate.
Islamophobia in Canada: An Increasingly Vicious Trend
The recent terrorist attack on a Muslim family in Canada is just one case of the rising Islamophobia in the West. While Western state governments usually express solidarity with the victims, no effective steps are really taken to dismantle and eradicate the intensifying xenophobia in these countries.
Security and Human Rights as Explained by IR Theories
The author explains the issues of security and human rights by illustrating a juxtaposition of the central concepts of international relations — constructivism, liberal institutionalism, normative theory, and offensive realism.
What is Olympic Diplomacy?: The Case of the 2022 Winter Olympics
Olympics diplomacy is a type of diplomacy that hasn’t garnered much attention in the international diplomatic arena. Both (the hosting and the participating) states try to assert dominance through the performance of their athletes. The Olympics can also build alliances, which was the case with China and the US in 1971. However, China’s alarming human rights violations have called for a boycott of the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing.
Civil War in Myanmar and Human Rights Violations
Myanmar has been subjected to a civil war since the time of its independence. In the last 7 decades, the state’s leadership has failed to ensure peace and stability; on the contrary, it has aided the instability and the failure of democracy. The military coup of 2021 and the human rights violations under the leadership of Aung San Suu Kyi have proved that militarization and human rights abuse are interlinked.
Women’s Rights in Pakistan: Is the Aurat March the Way to Do It?
While the Aurat March in Pakistan aims to fight for women’s rights, the author, Rimsha Zia, questions if it is really the best course of action to take. She argues that due to the way the march has been conducted, along with the patriarchal, misogynistic and extremist attitudes in Pakistan’s society, it is impossible for the march to achieve its purpose. She also explains that the problem with Pakistan is not that it gives women no rights, but rather the lack of implementation to ensure these rights.
Corporal Punishment in Schools: A Tragic Norm in Pakistan
Corporal punishment in schools has become a culturally acceptable norm in Pakistan. Through the interviews she conducted with the teachers and students of different schools in Pakistan, the author notes that institutions are turning a blind eye to corporal punishment. This has left children alone to suffer the long-term psychological and physical impacts of the punishment, and forced them to drop out of school.
Domestic Abuse in Pakistan: A Ticking Bomb
According to research, 90% of women in Pakistan have faced domestic violence. Although the number does not come as a surprise, it is difficult to shake away the unsettling feeling. COVID-19 has probably not only increased the numbers, but it may also have intensified the abuse.