In recent years, Europe has witnessed a disheartening rise in Islamophobia, imposing far-reaching consequences on individuals, communities, and societies as a whole. Europe’s Islamophobic wave has led to Muslim communities experiencing an immense amount of discrimination, hate crimes, and marginalization. When it comes to Islam, freedom of speech has been reduced to an excuse for committing hate crimes. Fatimah Naeem provides a comprehensive analysis of the causes and consequences of Islamophobia in Europe, and the responses to it. She aims to foster awareness and understanding of this multifaceted issue to encourage constructive dialogue and efforts towards a more tolerant and inclusive European society.
The Republic of Tunisia, a North African country, has seen much despair over the past decade and has garnered much international recognition due to its vital role in the Arab Spring. Seen as the only state that fully turned over a new leaf and dedicated its efforts to a democratic future, it seemed that the country had a course chartered for progress and prosperity, but that soon went downhill. Currently, Tunisia is going through a major humanitarian crisis that involves police brutality, cultural and structural violence, and blatant human rights violations, especially concerning migrants and refugees.
The entire Carter administration disapproved of the human rights violations by the military junta within Argentina in the 1970s. However, the declassified documents in the National Security Archive reveal that “quiet diplomacy” was used to maintain political ties with the military junta. Instead of voicing his concerns in public, President Jimmy Carter chose to discuss the internal conflict with General Videla of the military junta in a private setting.
One of the United Nations’ most significant accomplishments in the history of humanitarian protection was the establishment of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, which aims to stop future mass atrocities in conflict zones and unstable circumstances. However, this doctrine, which is largely the responsibility of the member-states under the auspices of the supra-national organization, has over the years been used to advance individual state strategic interests in Libya and Iraq. As a result of the member states’ continued abuse of the doctrine under the guise of humanitarian intervention, it is imperative to assess the doctrine and the legitimacy of these so-called humanitarian interventions in the name of averting mass atrocities.
Labeled a ‘state sponsor of terrorism’ in 1979, Syria has been experiencing severe economic sanctions by the West since then. The sanctions are renewed every year, and all US Presidents have been renewing them (& adding to them) without fail. The problem is that over half of the 21 million Syrians that lived in the country before the war have been displaced. Western Sanctions and Bashar’s obstinacy mean that Syrians are continually getting crushed by inflation, broken infrastructure, & the lack of access to basic humanities. The question is, when will the suffering of the Syrian people end?
The ‘Khmer Rouge’ was a political group in Cambodia, which was also called the Kampuchea Communist Party. The Khmer Rouge led Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, coming into power on April 17, 1975. They used the tactics of guerilla warfare and ended up labeling the country as “Democratic Kampuchea”. The Extraordinary Chambers in the Court of Cambodia (ECCC), an international genocide tribunal, was set up to convict the three men responsible for the crimes of the regime. The ECCC upheld the conviction of the regime’s last surviving leader, Khieu Samphan, ending 16 years of hearings.
Nufaisa Garba Ahmed primarily sets out to examine the nature and character of the protection of civilians in armed conflicts. In doing so, she brings to the fore some of the grave violations against the civilian population by the Nigerian military in the fight against the Boko Haram Terrorist Group (BHTG) in Nigeria’s Northeast, as reported by credible news outlets. The aim of this opinion piece is to bring to light some of the salient issues of civilian protection and proffer some good practices and lessons to be adopted for more credible and transparent operations by the military in armed conflicts.
A nationwide insurrection has engulfed Peru since early December, following the arrest and imprisonment of the country’s former president, Pedro Castillo. The violent confrontation between the Peruvians and the security forces has entered the eighth week, culminating in the death of 60 civilians – and counting. What prompted these protests, and what lies ahead for Peru?
Humanitarian intervention can be used as an instrument to manage the armed aspect of the conflict and lower the suffering of people by curbing violence. However, it is not as simple as it seems. In international politics, a number of factors are involved for states to take action. Iman Faisal tries to shed light on the certain complexities of humanitarian intervention by taking the example of humanitarian intervention during the Rwandan Genocide.
Nothing explains the United Nations’ peacekeeping failure better than the Bosnian War (1992-1995). Despite the presence of UN peacekeepers, the war culminated in one of the most horrendous massacres of all time—the Srebrenica massacre. The United Nations’ incompetence in preventing the genocide of the Bosnian Muslims, and the great powers’ hesitance to intervene cost the world the lives of more than 100,000 Bosniaks.
There is a marked difference in the political systems of South Korea and North Korea, but human rights issues prevail in both countries. The paper analyzes certain laws that limit freedom in South Korea, and the overall political system in North Korea. Momina Munir Khan concludes that both countries limit individual autonomy in terms of freedom of choice and expression, but the framework of South Korea is still lenient. North Korea, however, has designed its system through mass internalization, to limit the freedom of any sort – humanitarian, social, and political.
The recent execution of four pro-democracy activists in Myanmar is the first time in decades that the state has handed out the death penalty. Myanmar’s military government has received backlash and criticism from human rights activists and the international community for its unjustified acts of terror. Maryam Ibrahim notes that even the threat of losing their lives has not deterred the supporters of democracy in Myanmar from raising their voices.
Iman Faisal analyzes the 1994 Rwandan genocide through the lens of the social identity theory. She explains that the Hutus and Tutsis each viewed themselves as in-group and the other as out-group. As such, they associated certain norms, stereotypes, and insecurities with what they considered to be the “others”.
Kanz-ul-eman differentiates between hate speech and free speech. She explains how hate speech has thrived under the umbrella of freedom of speech and become widespread in Pakistan and the rest of the world. Various forms of media are being used to disseminate hate speech to incite violence against different groups. The author notes that terrorist groups, in particular, have taken a liking to social media platforms to spread harmful messages and for recruitment purposes.
Since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, the state has been in a constant state of turmoil, the brunt of which Afghan women had to face. The status of women’s rights worsened after the Taliban first came to power in 1996. The women of Afghanistan were forced to marry Taliban soldiers, deprived of their right to education, healthcare, and employment, and were subjected to violence and public executions. Despite the claims of the current Taliban regime, the past cannot be erased. After the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, the relative freedom that Afghan women had gained over the years is being threatened, and they fear for their lives once again.
President Lukashenko of Belarus has been accused of using social media to bring thousands of migrants (mainly from the Middle East) to Belarus. The migrants come in hopes of entering the European Union. Poland, Latvia, and Lithuania have now issued state emergency at the borders, leaving migrants stranded. Belarus states that it will assist the EU with the crisis – only if the EU removes the sanctions imposed on Belarus.
The much-awaited Biden-Xi virtual summit took place on 15th November to deliberate and resolve the contentious issues between the two states. The meeting focused on four key areas: Taiwan, trade relations, human rights violations, and climate change.