The city of Mohenjo Daro, constructed in 2500 BCE, is a crucial aspect of Pakistan’s history and culture. The ruins of Mohenjo Daro once formed a part of South Asia’s Indus Valley civilization. Since its excavation in the 1920s, Mohenjo Daro has continued to surprise historians and archeologists. The authors, Ziyad Sheikh and Noor Ul Huda, note that although the city was built more than 4500 years ago, it had a proper drainage system, advanced architecture, a well-planned street grid, a trade network that contributed to its wealth, and one of the earliest public baths in the pre-modern era. The authors explain that despite there being numerous speculations as to why the city declined, researchers have failed to find the actual reason for the city’s fall.
The author, Ms. Noor Ul Huda, traces out the abominable refugee assistance program in Australia. Although it has the capacity of 12,000 to 13,000 refugees annually under its Refugee and Humanitarian Program, Australia’s harsh asylum policies have permitted the detention of said asylum seekers in the isolated detention centres of Nauru and Manus Island. Although the former has been officially closed since 2017, Australia’s cruel and torturous detention centers in Nauru and Manus for asylum seekers have invited criticism from the U.N. but have gained appreciation from many of the far-right parties across Europe.