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Written by Afaq Ahmad 12:31 pm Opinion, Published Content

Navigating Cybersecurity Cooperation Between China and Pakistan

Afaq Ahmad examines the nature of the Sino-Pak relationship in regard to cybersecurity including the ways in which both countries are working together to address common threats and any potential challenges that may arise. He also discusses the broader implications of improved cybersecurity cooperation for regional security, and the need for continued vigilance and cooperation in the face of evolving cyber threats.
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About the Author(s)
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Mr Afaq Ahmad graduated with a degree in International Relations from the University of Peshawar.


As the world becomes more reliant on digital technologies, nations have become vulnerable to a range of cyber threats. Both China and Pakistan have faced significant cyber threats in the past and have a shared interest in improving their cybersecurity capabilities.

The Belt and Road Initiative, which aims to improve connectivity and cooperation between China and Pakistan, highlights the importance of cybersecurity in the region. Cyber threats can be used as a tool for state-sponsored espionage or sabotage, significantly impacting the economic and political stability of both countries.

Cybersecurity Threats

Both China and Pakistan have faced a range of cyber threats in recent years, including state-sponsored hacking and espionage, as well as attacks by criminal groups and hackers seeking to steal sensitive information or disrupt critical infrastructure.

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Some of the most significant cyber threats include cyber espionage by foreign governments, particularly India and the United States, aimed at stealing sensitive economic and military information, and cyber-attacks by criminal groups seeking to steal financial data or disrupt critical infrastructures, such as power plants or transportation systems.

Sino-Pak Cooperation on Cybersecurity

China and Pakistan have recognized the importance of improving their cybersecurity capabilities in order to protect themselves against common threats. In 2015, China and Pakistan signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on cybersecurity cooperation, which established a framework for collaboration on issues such as capacity building, information sharing, and technical assistance.

In 2019, the two countries held their first joint cybersecurity exercise, aimed at improving their ability to respond to cyber-attacks and other threats. Moreover, China and Pakistan have engaged in a number of capacity-building initiatives to improve the cybersecurity capabilities of their respective governments and private sectors. This includes training programs, technical assistance, and the exchange of best practices.

Both countries have also established mechanisms for sharing information about cyber threats and vulnerabilities, as well as for coordinating responses to cyber-attacks. Furthermore, China has provided technical assistance to Pakistan in a number of areas related to cybersecurity, including the development of cybersecurity regulations and the establishment of cyber incident response teams.

The potential benefits of improved cybersecurity cooperation between China and Pakistan include enhanced protection against common cyber threats, such as state-sponsored hacking and espionage, as well as attacks by criminal groups and non-state actors.

It will also induce improved economic and political stability, as both countries rely heavily on digital technologies for economic growth and governance. The potential for Sino-Pak cooperation in this area will serve as a model for other countries in the region, promoting greater regional stability and security.

Challenges and Concerns

Despite the progress made in improving cybersecurity cooperation between China and Pakistan, a number of challenges and concerns remain. China and Pakistan may have different approaches to cybersecurity, including different laws, regulations, and technologies, which could create challenges in terms of cooperation.

As with any form of international cooperation, there is always the potential for one country to use the relationship to gather intelligence or engage in other forms of cyber manipulation. Tensions between China and Pakistan, or between China and other countries, can impact the willingness or ability of the two countries to cooperate on cybersecurity issues.


Cybersecurity cooperation between China and Pakistan is of critical importance given the increasing reliance of both countries on digital technologies and the potential consequences of cyber attacks for economic and political stability. Despite the progress made in improving cooperation, a number of challenges and concerns remain, including differences in approaches and priorities, concerns about cyber espionage or other forms of manipulation, and the impact of broader political tensions.

To address these challenges and ensure the continued success of Sino-Pak cybersecurity cooperation, it will be important to focus on building trust and transparency, establishing clear rules and protocols, and ensuring that cooperation is mutually beneficial and focused on addressing common threats. The importance of Sino-Pak cybersecurity cooperation extends beyond the bilateral relationship, as improved cooperation in this area could have broader implications for regional stability and security. By working together to address common cyber threats, China and Pakistan can help to build a more secure and prosperous region for all.

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The views and opinions expressed in this article/paper are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the editorial position of Paradigm Shift.

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