Published Content

Paradigm Shift’s published articles, research papers, and book reviews can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

The Unbelievable Journey of Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew

Written by Eman Anjum 2:00 pm

Having been the leading person to have fought for his country’s independence from the British colonial rule, it is no surprise that Lee Kuan Yew is known to be Singapore’s founding father. The author, Eman Anjum, briefly explores his life before and while he was in office.
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The Highs and Lows of Pak-US Relations: From the Cold War to Now

Written by Aamina Binte Khurram 12:30 pm

The relations between Pakistan and the United States have always been based upon national interests and America’s dominant power position. While analyzing the history of this relationship, Aamina Binte Khurram argues that since the 1950s, the US has done its best to influence Pakistan’s foreign and domestic policies and pressurized the state to do its bidding in the South Asian region. The United States has leveraged Pakistan’s weaker position, and coerced Pakistani leaders on many occasions. Hence, it comes as no surprise that the Pakistan-US relationship has been marred with periods of hostility whenever the interests of the two states have diverged.
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Destabilizing QUAD: One Member at a Time

Written by Dr. Kankana Debnath 11:48 am

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD), an alliance between the US, India, Australia, and Japan, reemerged in the international arena in 2017 as an effort to keep China in check in the Indo-Pacific region. The common interest of countering China bounds these states together but according to the author, Dr. Kankana Debnath, the visit of the Russian and Chinese foreign ministers to New Delhi has threatened the internal dynamics of QUAD.
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Student Unions in Pakistan: The Neglected Past

Written by Zara Ahmed 12:54 pm

Accusing student unions to be a source of violence is a misconception in Pakistan. Without tracing the roots of violence, it has been declared that student activism can be detrimental to the academic atmosphere of universities, as a result, students have completely disengaged themselves from politics. The author, Zara Ahmed, rediscovers the past of student unions, their role in society and politics, and how student activism turned into reactionary politics.
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US Arms Sales to Saudi Arabia

Written by Rooha Javed 11:55 am

The arms trade between the West and the Middle East has been a long-standing factor in the relations between the two. Within the Middle Eastern region, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has risen as the largest arms importer, mainly relying on the US for weapons. The author, Rooha Javed, notes that between 2015 and 2020, the US pledged to sell weapons worth $64.1 billion to Riyadh. Moreover, despite the criticism of Saudi Arabia’s involvement in the war in Yemen, the US has continued the arms supply to the kingdom.
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“Gold Russ-h”: The Russian Ruble vs USD

Written by Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan 12:01 pm

Facing enormous sanctions and economic setbacks, the Russian state is grasping at straws as it attempts to keep its economy afloat. Pegging the ruble to gold was a last-ditch attempt by Russia, but it seems to have struck gold. Or has it? The author, Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan, explains the value and current state of gold, the dollar, and the ruble in the global financial markets following the sanctions on Russia.
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The US-backed Regime Change in Pakistan

Written by Mir Adnan Aziz 11:47 am

The United States has freely been using regime changes as tools for subjugation. If unable to “convince” a leader to comply, the US simply has him/her removed from power. Ironically, the US Senate had to formally pass an “assassination ban” on US citizens/officials since CIA/US assassinations and coups in states run by “unfavorable” governments were becoming too frequent. The author, Mir Adnan Aziz, argues that for the US, Pakistan’s former prime minister, Imran Khan, represented one such unfavorable government. Though Pakistan is not a stranger to America’s interventionist policies, the recent regime change in Pakistan has revealed the true extent of covert American networking in the state.
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How Britain’s Policy of Appeasement Led to the Second World War

Written by Mohammad Mudasar Laghari 11:48 am

The Second World War had horrendous impacts on the entire world. The war destroyed entire cities and took the lives of 70-85 million people. Besides the Treaty of Versailles, the policy of appeasement adopted by Great Britain and France played a prominent role in initiating World War II. The author, Mohammad Mudasar Laghari, elucidates that this appeasement, reflected in the 1939 Munich Agreement, was the reason behind Germany’s greed.
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The Space Race in the 21st Century

Written by Iqra Mumtaz 12:06 pm

Space was an important front for war in the last century and will be just as significant in this century. Space became a zone of conflict during the Space Race in the Cold War. In present times, the space market has grown complex and diverse, with the private and commercial sectors participating more in this realm. The author, Iqra Mumtaz, believes that space hegemony will play an important role in terms of future military and political influence.
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The Nine Lives of Pakistan: Dispatches from a Precarious State (Book Review)

Written by Aamina Binte Khurram 11:47 am

In “The Nine Lives of Pakistan: Dispatches from a Precarious State,” Declan Walsh unravels his findings and life in Pakistan. He explores a nation that is full of turbulence and divide, and yet so resilient.
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Unleashing the Potential of the SME Sector in Pakistan

Written by Umme Ammara 12:54 pm

Using a general thematic approach, this paper examines the positive and negative externalities of the COVID-19 pandemic on Pakistan’s economy. The author, Umme Ammara, explores the different cases of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) from China, India, Bangladesh and Kazakhstan to understand the different measures the Pakistani government can initiate to strengthen SMEs. The findings suggest that unleashing the potential of the SME sector requires the need for institutional change in a country intending to build a human economy where human development is the main area of concern.
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The Changing Dynamics of Pakistan-Saudi Arabia Relations

Written by Afifa Iqbal 11:47 am

Pakistan and Saudi Arabia have a history of strong diplomatic relations. In the past, both states have supported each other on the diplomatic front. Pakistan has endorsed Saudi Arabia’s stance on Syria whereas, the kingdom has called for the settlement of the Kashmir dispute and provided financial aid to Pakistan. The author, Afifa Iqbal, notes that the Pakistan-Saudi Arabia “ideological union” is a thing of the past, owing to the changing ideological configuration of the two states. Now, the interests and policies of both states no longer align on every matter.
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The Financial Crisis in Sri Lanka

Written by Rabia Rasool 12:18 pm

Thousands of people are out on the streets protesting against the current government’s mishandling of the economic crisis. The author, Rabia Rasool, discusses the reasons behind the current economic quakes in Sri Lanka.
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Examining the Donetsk and Luhansk Republics in Ukraine’s Donbas Region

Written by Syed Haris Shah and Khushbakht Ayesha 11:47 am

In 2014, separatist groups backed by Russia declared the Donetsk and Luhansk regions in eastern Ukraine “republics.” Since then, they’ve been accused of committing war crimes and assisting Russia in its attacks on Ukraine. The authors, Syed Haris Shah and Khushbakht Ayesha, analyze the pro-Russian ideology of the leadership of these two self-proclaimed republics in Ukraine’s Donbas region and their role in the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war.
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The Troubling State of Press Freedom in Pakistan

Written by Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan 11:47 am

As the nation grapples with the after-effects of the success of the no-confidence motion against former Prime Minister Imran Khan, the question of the impartiality of media has once again reared its head. The author, Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan, outlines the Pakistani media’s politically-charged actions and its decaying freedoms.
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Domestic Violence Against Women in Russia

Written by Hafsa Ammar 11:55 am

In 2017, Russia introduced an amendment to the Russian Criminal Code, decriminalizing domestic violence. Russian law, along with the Russian orthodox tradition of considering domestic abuse an “internal family matter,” has led many women to lose faith in justice and abandon all hope. The author, Hafsa Ammar, argues that during the pandemic, while the rest of the world passed laws to ensure the safety of women trapped in abusive environments, Russia had done the opposite. The situation in Russia has prevented women from even reporting cases of domestic abuse, leading the government to make claims of a decrease in violent cases.
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India and the US: A History of Strained Relations

Written by Muhammad Mustafa Ahmed Khan 11:47 am

Ever since it gained independence in 1947, the Republic of India has had strained ties with the United States, a trend that continues today. Despite instances of co-operation on issues like international counter-terrorism, trade, and economic development, the two largest democracies in the world have often diverged on questions of strategic importance, a divergence that has been exacerbated and brought into the spotlight by the recent Russian invasion of Ukraine, which is now continuing into its second month.
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