Published Content

All of Paradigm Shift’s published content (articles and research papers) can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

Hybrid Warfare and its Implications for Pakistan’s National Security Strategy

Written by Hassnain Moawia 10:47 am

Hybrid warfare is a unique blend of conventional and non-conventional methods of war. Pakistan has endured the constant threat of hybrid warfare since its inception – long before the term even came into existence. To maintain its defense, Pakistan has begun to familiarize itself with such propaganda.
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Eurasianism vs. Neo-Ottomanism in the Turkish Foreign Policy

Written by Necati Demircan 10:47 am

Turkey, formerly the Ottoman Empire, is said to have a foreign policy dictated by neo-Ottomanism, mainly by those who support the West. The author argues that neo-Ottomanism is incompatible with Turkey’s current foreign policies, and instead cites Eurasianism as the idea behind Turkey’s foreign policies.
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Disadvantages of Renewable Energy: The Untold Story

Written by G.N. Mahar 10:46 am

In the shift from non-renewable to green energy sources, human beings have ignored the disadvantages of renewable energy. The author explains that while the energy generated by solar panels, wind turbines, and biomass farms, is renewable, the raw materials used for the construction of equipment or structures to harness it, is not. The author further asserts that in our efforts to tackle climate change, we have been more focused on preserving our way of life than protecting the planet responsible for sustaining it.
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Islamophobia in the United States and Beyond

Written by Meshal Farid Bhatti 10:47 am

The fear and terror prevailing against Muslims around the world, especially in the West is called “Islamophobia”. The terrorist attack of 9/11, in particular, led to an unparalleled rise in Islamophobia – and Muslims all around the world were suddenly labelled ‘extremists’ and ‘terrorists’. In the United States, far-right political parties are using this fear to gain momentum in their political career.
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US Policy of Containment Against China

Written by Sidra Nasheen 10:47 am

Due to China’s increasing economic and military influence, the US feels threatened. The author notes that the United States has devised a containment policy against China to prevent it from dominating the US spheres of influence, and impeding the US interests. She further explains that the Abraham Accords, signed on 13th August 2020 between Israel, the UAE and the US, are a part of this containment policy.
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The Marginalization of the Sikh Community in Peshawar

Written by Ahmad Wadeer 1:47 pm

Over 60,000 Sikhs are living in Pakistan – most of them in KPK and surrounding areas. As a minority, the community faces a plethora of problems such as bullying, harassment, security threats, impediments in conducting business, obtaining an education, getting subsidized healthcare, and even registering themselves as citizens of Pakistan.
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China in the Indian Ocean: India’s Dilemma

Written by Samrah Aslam 10:47 am

The seas and oceans are the great highways and sea zones are considered to be the new war zones because of the increasing significance of Sea Lines of Communication (SLOCs). China’s increasing maritime interests in the Indian Ocean and the strategies opted by China to gain that command on the sea, especially in the Indian Ocean are creating a security paradox and competition in the Indian Ocean mainly because of the strategic connotation of important choke points.
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Racism in the British Royal Family?

Written by Muzamil Wasti 10:47 am

Allegations of racism have been leveled against the British royal family, which have been claimed to be false by some and palpably true by others. Meghan Markle, Duchess of Sussex, has revealed, in a recent interview with Oprah Winfrey, the virulent racism within the walls of the British royal family’s palaces.
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The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue: A New Security Landscape in the Asia-Pacific

Written by Aneesa Aslam 1:47 pm

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue is an informal security alliance aimed at creating a rule-based order in the Asia Pacific region. The Japanese Prime Minister at the Confluence of the Two Seas gave the idea of Security Diamond that would ensure the interests of like-minded countries. The Quad states – Australia, India, Japan, and the United States – have a common threat perception in the region that led to the revival of Quad after ten years of long hiatus.
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Religious Tourism in Pakistan: The Case of Sikhism & Buddhism

Written by Hamza Khaqan 10:47 am

A largely unexplored avenue of tourism in Pakistan is religious tourism – mainly Sikh and Buddhist tourism – which can potentially generate over $60 billion for Pakistan, and create over 100,000 jobs. To get the maximum benefit from this sector, the government needs to immediately invest in developing and maintaining vital supporting infrastructure.
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The Dynamics of Civil Society in the Kyrgyz Republic

Written by Sadia Atta 1:47 pm

Civil society organizations (CSOs) are crucial for every state, and especially important where democracy is visibly lacking. The paper explores the growth and role of CSOs in the turbulent history of the Kyrgyz Republic. It explains how two important events — the Tulip Revolution and the Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010 — shaped the CSOs of Kyrgyzstan.
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The US Withdrawal from Afghanistan: An Imperative Task

Written by Hamza Sharif 10:47 am

After two decades of war in Afghanistan, the time has finally come for the US to withdraw its forces. While the Doha Agreement paved the way for the US to extricate itself, its implementation will be based on the US interests defined by the Biden administration. Regardless of that, it is necessary for the US to withdraw its forces so that the war-torn state can learn to rely on itself.
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The US Intervention in Syria: Complications or Resolutions?

Written by Kashaf Sohail 2:00 pm

A minor conflict that arose in 2011 turned Syria into a battleground of a full-fledged civil war within a few years involving the regional and major powers. This research paper will unfold in a sequence of explanations of the factors that contributed to the surge of a conflict and what interested the United States to intervene. Moreover, the diplomatic activities that took place and how Russia, Iran, and Turkey contributed are discussed.
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Domestic Violence is Domestic Terrorism

Written by Sadaf Shabbir 10:47 am

Domestic violence consists of all the facets of terrorism. Hence, referring to it as “abuse” or “violence” undermines the severity of the terroristic acts. The author explains that the term “domestic terrorism” is well suited for these horrendous acts. She uses Pakistan as a case study, at the end, to highlight how the societal structure reinforces domestic terrorism.
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Saudi Arabia and Iran: A Severed Past & a Bitter Present

Written by Faizan Ali 1:47 pm

Saudi Arabia and Iran have had had a fractured relationship, and this animosity was triggered during the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Both nation-states represent the two major Islamic sects, that is, Shia and Sunni, thus fueling both states with animosity. The support for opposing groups, the inception of proxies, and the initiation of counter actions towards each other began as a result of the security dilemma between the two states.
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FATF Grey List: Pakistan’s Acid Test

Written by Muhammad Hamza Tanvir 10:48 am

Pakistan has once again failed to satisfy the Paris-based FATF with regards to the actions it is taking against terror financing and money laundering. The problem is the lack of international support. Even allies like China, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, and the Gulf States refused to back Pakistan in the arena. The only supporter was Turkey.
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Data Protection Laws in Pakistan: Resolving Privacy Concerns

Written by Aimen Babur 10:47 am

The current pandemic has increased the significance of the internet manifold, allowing numerous businesses to survive online in the times of lockdowns imposed across the globe. However, it has also raised concerns of privacy and data protection, rendering it imperative for Pakistan to draft comprehensive data protection laws and the implementation thereof.
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