Published Content

Paradigm Shift’s published articles, research papers, opinion pieces and book reviews can be found here. You can scroll down and navigate the various pages. Topics of focus broadly include global politics, current affairs, international relations, and Pakistan.

Guyana Moves Towards Digital Governance

Written by Areej Haider 9:02 pm

The government of Guyana wants to move its services online and create an efficient digital system of governance. The digital structure of the nation will be essential for fostering sustainable growth and lowering economic and social inequality.
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Nigeria’s 2023 Presidential Elections

Written by Ayesha Javaid 6:31 pm

Nigeria, the giant of Africa, held its 2023 presidential elections on 25th February. This one marked the 7th election since democracy returned to Nigeria in 1999. Bola Ahmed Tinbu, Atiku Abubakar, and Peter Obi were the front-runners out of a total of 18 candidates. On 1st March, Nigeria’s electoral commission declared Mr Tinbu as the victor with 8.7 million votes.
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The Football War of 1969

Written by Ayeza Areej 7:31 pm

There were a series of tensions and disagreements over territories and immigration that escalated to a conflict following a football match between El Salvador and Honduras. The Football War of 1969 was a hundred-hour war that resulted in the dissolution of the El Salvador–Honduras diplomatic ties and the deaths of over 3000 people from both countries.
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The Dangers of Free Speech Absolutism

Written by Mir Adnan Aziz 9:09 pm

Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Lord Acton’s words can also be applicable to free speech. Mir Adnan Aziz holds that free speech absolutism—speech that knows no restrictions or limitations—has disfigured the sanctity of free speech. He makes his case by centering the piece around how Charlie Hebdo abused free speech, by continually publishing extremely offensive, and sometimes blasphemous cartoons.
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The Long-Awaited High Seas Treaty

Written by Areej Haider 7:34 pm

The high seas, which are areas outside of national boundary waters, have been the subject of conservation discussions for more than 20 years. 4th March 2023 saw the signing of a legally binding High Seas treaty by nearly 200 nations to protect marine life in international waters – that have historically been lawless.
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Does Marijuana Use Affect Athletic Performance?

Written by Hamid Amni 10:07 pm

Hamid Amni scientifically explores some advantages and disadvantages of marijuana use by fighters and athletes from a neutral point of view based on limited studies. Ultimately, he strongly suggests that each MMA fighter consult with a doctor about using marijuana and consider the rules and regulations of the sport.
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International Women’s Day 2023: Embrace Equity

Written by Hafsa Ammar 5:25 pm

8th March or ‘International Women’s Day’ has been deemed a day to honor women all around the world. It is a small reprieve from the remainder of the year and this specific distinction reminds us to pay a little closer attention to the women in our lives. In her piece, Hafsa Ammar discusses this year’s theme, ‘Embrace Equity’, similar to that of last year’s ‘Accelerate Equity’.
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A Closer Look at the MH17 Plane Crash Investigation

Written by Alya Farooq 8:50 pm

Alya Farooq unveils the details of the Malaysian Airlines MH17 aircraft crash that killed the 298 people on board. The article discusses the legal proceedings, the interesting investigative methods (radar, telecommunication, imaging, etc), and the part played by Russia in the attack.
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Explainer: Mini-Budget 2023 of Pakistan

Written by Afifa Iqbal 4:17 pm

The mini-budget 2023 has become infamous for the economic shock waves and the glaring reduction in the purchasing power of the citizens of Pakistan. In the hopes of securing a $1.1 billion deal with the IMF, the current government hurriedly drafted a “cure-all” mini-budget which received formal assent from the President just last month. Afifa Iqbal provides a concise description of the mini-budget, so that more citizens, especially the youth, are able to get a clearer understanding.
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Mastering the CSS Exam: Effective Tips and Tricks

Written by Torchbearer CSS Academy 8:36 pm

Want to crack the code for passing the CSS exams in Pakistan? With this guide by Saddam Hussain Magsi, a qualified CSS mentor who has been continually facilitating CSS aspirants, you can prepare effectively and confidently for one of the most competitive exams in the country.
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Paradigm Shift’s Magazine: February 2023 Edition

Written by Paradigm Shift 7:39 pm

The February 2023 edition of our magazine includes 16 pieces that revolve around IMF’s 9th economic review of Pakistan, the West’s sanctions on Syria, and ChatGPT’s writing ability, among others. This edition also features two infographics: one on the lowest inflation rates by country, and the second depicting the number of nuclear weapons held by each nuclear state.
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China’s 12-Point Peace Plan for the Russia-Ukraine War

Written by Sana Azhar 3:40 pm

On 24th February, with its 12-point plan, China called for a ceasefire and negotiations to end the Russia-Ukraine war. Ukraine and Russia were both open to the idea initially, but after the US’s dismissal of the plan, Ukraine turned away from China’s peace proposal.
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A Look Into the Pakistan-Türkiye Relief Efforts

Written by Zainab Haseeb 7:20 pm

Zainab Haseeb undertakes an event-by-event analysis to understand how both Pakistan and Türkiye have contributed to safeguarding each other’s interests during natural challenges. She traces the relief efforts made during the 2005 earthquake, the 2022 floods, and the recent 2023 earthquakes.
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The Austro-Prussian War of 1866

Written by Ayeza Areej 12:20 pm

Lasting from 14th June to 22nd July of 1866, the Austro-Prussian War was a pivotal moment in European history, leading to the creation of a powerful German empire under William I. In this article, Ayeza Areej explores the alliances, battles, causes, and consequences of this historic conflict.
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Victor’s Peace: Merits & Pitfalls

Written by Hafsa Ammar 2:40 pm

Victor’s Peace strategy is deployed when all peaceful means toward conflict are unsuccessful in de-escalating it. The ultimate goal of the intervening party is to establish durable and long-lasting peace, instead of prioritizing their strategic motives. In theory, military overtaking has negative connotations but in places where negotiated peace fails time and again, the immediate solution is Victor’s Peace, conditions can always be negotiated afterward. Hafsa Ammar provides both national and international as well as historical and recent accounts to illustrate the concept and dimensions of Victor’s Peace.
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R2P and the US-NATO Intervention in Iraq and Libya

Written by Adam Abass 7:57 pm

One of the United Nations’ most significant accomplishments in the history of humanitarian protection was the establishment of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine, which aims to stop future mass atrocities in conflict zones and unstable circumstances. However, this doctrine, which is largely the responsibility of the member-states under the auspices of the supra-national organization, has over the years been used to advance individual state strategic interests in Libya and Iraq. As a result of the member states’ continued abuse of the doctrine under the guise of humanitarian intervention, it is imperative to assess the doctrine and the legitimacy of these so-called humanitarian interventions in the name of averting mass atrocities.
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How Western Sanctions Are Worsening the Humanitarian Crisis in Syria

Written by Aleena Imran 7:50 pm

Labeled a ‘state sponsor of terrorism’ in 1979, Syria has been experiencing severe economic sanctions by the West since then. The sanctions are renewed every year, and all US Presidents have been renewing them (& adding to them) without fail. The problem is that over half of the 21 million Syrians that lived in the country before the war have been displaced. Western Sanctions and Bashar’s obstinacy mean that Syrians are continually getting crushed by inflation, broken infrastructure, & the lack of access to basic humanities. The question is, when will the suffering of the Syrian people end?
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