The paper discusses the prospects of maritime tourism in Pakistan and explores the furtive of the Maldives’ tourism. In the 1960s, the Maldives was declared unsuitable for tourism by the United Nations due to the unavailability of basic needs and the geographical barriers associated with a water-locked country. But this hypothesis by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) has been falsified and proven wrong by the archipelago’s persistent planning and implementation of strategies.
Initially, Pakistan was also flourishing in the tourism sector. However, due to legal and institutional framework, especially after the 18th Amendment which gave provincial autonomy, the tourism sector became a bone of contention between federal and provincial governments. Due to such bottlenecks and other factors, such as the post-9/11 security situation, the tourism sector could not pick up the pace.
In this paper, liberal models will be applied to understand how tourism can boost a country’s economy and highlight its soft image globally. A comparison of both countries’ tourism policies is also presented to show the different implementations of tourism-linked policies. Finally, strategies and recommendations will be discussed that can boost Pakistan’s maritime potential.
Keywords: Maritime tourism, National tourism policy, coastal areas, multiplier-effect of tourism, constitutional amendments, NTCB, infrastructure, management, maritime potential.
Maritime commercial enterprise denotes ocean activities, including boating, yachting, cruising, and shipping sports. Studies are undertaken on the monetary aspects of sea-based tourism, signifying the “multiplier-effect of tourism.” Maritime tourism is the world’s fastest-growing industry. Ocean and coast tourism can bring jobs and economic growth.
Coastal and least developed countries. and small island developing states receive more than 41 million visitors per year. Pakistan’s tourism industry thrived during the 1960s and 1970s when local and foreign tourists alike enjoyed tourist activities at the country’s vast coastline. However, the position gradually deteriorated, and security concerns following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the rise of the Taliban, and later Pakistan’s involvement in the Global War on Terror clouded the tourism industry.
Now, as Pakistan concentrates on geo-economics and exhibits its position as a peaceful country, the potential of maritime tourism must be untapped. From policy making to infrastructure development, Pakistan can learn from the Maldives – one of the world’s top tourist destinations.
The Republic of Maldives has a coastline length of 650 km, while Pakistan’s coastline is 1000 km long. Considering this statistic, Pakistan has a greater capacity of boosting its tourism, benefitting economically, and emerging as an eminent stakeholder in world affairs.
The authors highlight the crucial importance of maritime tourism for Pakistan to display its soft image globally and flourish economically. The paper primarily addresses the following question: Why developing maritime tourism is important for Pakistan?
To understand the significance of developing the coastal tourism industry, this paper digs into the pre-requisites of a successful maritime tourism industry. Furthermore, it examines how Pakistan can take lessons in maritime tourism development from a thriving tourist country in Asia such as the Maldives.
The research question is addressed using liberal economics and sociological liberalism. We always relate tourism to two things – the economic and social sides. The social side can be people-to-people contact across the city, region, provinces, or the country, where people cross borders from outside and then come and enjoy.
Now, this is the aspect of the economy that we usually incorporate into liberalism, a theory of international relations. In this, we try to understand the interdependence of liberalism and the free trade/free market; tourism is mainly incorporated in this context.
The perspective of interdependence or free market/free trade is that when trade between two countries increases, it results in the two countries being interdependent. The same trade results in peaceful relations between the states; the important thing is that we see tourism trade.
Visa and transport are required for the movement of people across regions. This is an economic side of tourism. Secondly, when people move to tourist destinations, the food industry is also essential when people eat and drink in those places. Thus, the states that send tourists to other states are interdependent regarding free trade.
Liberal economists say that there should not be too many restrictions across the border. There should be open borders and the movement of people to transport goods. The trade practices between the states should lead to peaceful relations while the international bodies should act as regional and global coordinators for the abovementioned aspects of such movements.
Apart from the economy, we also see that when there is people-to-people contact, it leads to sociological interdependence. It is said that a hostile relationship between people is formed when they do not meet, or they do not interact. We are told that someone is our enemy, but his identity is hidden from us, and it is only revealed when an interaction takes place.
Now the liberal school of thought suggests that if people get to know each other, they will meet, people-to-people contact will increase, and the understanding of each other’s language and culture will be feasible. As a result, the ignorance that leads to the development of hostile relationships will be significantly reduced.
The prejudices that have formed in our minds and the racist comments we make about people and other communities will lessen because we will try to understand their point of view and understand their historical experiences, culture, and traditions. This is also what the sociological school tells us about tourism.
A great example is the Liverpool Football Club. Liverpool has been playing great football for the last three or four years. The team’s star player for three years, Muhammad Salah, is an Egyptian and a Muslim with long hair and a beard. The Stanford University of California did a particular study on this. It was observed that after the arrival of Muhammad Salah, there was a decrease of 18% in racial abuse, which was online trolling or Islamophobia.
This was a significant development. The club started looking at Muhammad Salah and realized that he portrayed a soft image, a positive image of Muslims. Moreover, after an examination of 15 million tweets by the UK’s football fans, it was revealed that Liverpool supporters had divided the number of anti-Muslim tweets posted.
This is a great illustration of people-to-people contact. When people get to know each other, the competition and hostility start to decrease, and the prospects for cooperation increase. This is what we see in tourism.
Impacts of the Constitution on Tourism Policies in Pakistan and the Maldives
The Constitution of the Maldives
President Ibrahim Mohamed Solih announced the 10th Amendment to the Maldives Tourism (Act No. 2/99). At the 28th sitting of its third meeting, the Maldivian parliament passed the amendment on December 7, 2020.
The new amendment gave the president the powers to allot islands to improve tourist resorts, and incorporated travel industry advancement, travel industry-related land projects, traveler inns and visitor houses, yacht marinas, and other travel industry-related activities. Furthermore, the act does not limit the powers of local councils to dispense regions for travel industry improvement projects.
After the introduction of the 18th Amendment that led to the devolution of power and ministries to provinces, there was a change in the tourism industry. As the paper proceeds, the impacts of the 18th Amendment will be further elaborated.
Tourism in the Maldives and Pakistan
The Republic of Maldives was a country declared unsuitable for tourism by the United Nations in the 1960s due to:
- The unavailability of basic needs
- The geographical barriers accompanying a water-locked country
Now, the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) hypothesis has been falsified due to the Maldives’ persistent planning and implementation of strategies. Some scholars claimed that the idea of UNWTO started vanishing the day the Maldives executed its first tourism plan. In recent years, the Maldives has reached a climax in maritime tourism.
In contrast to the Maldives, Pakistan enjoyed an autonomous representation in tourism. Several foreign investors were investing a heavy amount in the tourism business in Pakistan. Dozens of foreigners (tourists) used to opt for Pakistan as their travel destination, enjoying the beaches, playing water sports, yachting, and many other water-related sports at the Karachi beaches. That period was known as the good ’60s of Pakistan.
Unfortunately, this heavenly picture of Pakistan vanished as Pakistan entered the 1970s. In this new period, it did not remain a destination for tourists anymore. The upheaval in the seventies was due to political conflicts at the domestic and international level, security dilemma due to the separation of Bangladesh, India’s regional power nexus, and a sense of betrayal from the arch-ally, the United States.
Tourism has now flourished in the Maldives which was once declared a risk. Now, other countries are being advised by UNWTO and the World Bank to follow its lead, learn and adapt its strategies to become a thriving tourism destination for tourists. As the world order has already shifted and focused on geo-economics, countries have started focusing on blue economy and sea economy.
Therefore, Pakistan must use its incredible potential for tourism and rise economically at the domestic and international levels (Tanvir, 2021). For the future of the Maldives, it is evident from its past and present that it would be the number one destination for maritime tourism.
Religious Factors Impacting Tourism
The Maldives is a Muslim-dominated nation, but the people are more tolerant of other people’s religious beliefs. The tourists are provided with private beaches to enjoy their stay at the archipelago in privacy. In the case of Pakistan, although tourism was at its peak in the 1960s, religion became a sensitive subject after the initiation of the Islamization period. Since then, religious intolerance has continued to escalate.
The rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan and the subsequent emergence of religious parties in Pakistan have influenced the nation’s potential for maritime tourism. Foreign tourists hesitate to come to Pakistan due to religious intolerance. So, insensitivity should be curbed and private resorts for foreign tourists should be designed in Pakistan for tourism to regain ascendance.
Comparative Analysis of Tourism Policies and Strategies
The Maldives has achieved global tourism success through persistent planning and strategies’ implementation. Now, the archipelago offers luxury tourist facilities, attracting millions of foreign tourists every year. “We knew nothing about tourism,” one of the pioneers of the local tourism industry in the Maldives said. “It was tourists who helped us build the industry here. We listened to them and gave them what they wanted.”
In contrast to the Maldives, more than half of the tourists in Pakistan are locals, and they too suffer from issues like lack of interest by tourist guides, mismanagement, deteriorated infrastructure and facilities for domestic tourists, poor hygiene standards, difficulties in land acquisition, and lack of awareness. To visit Balochistan’s coastal areas, a No Objection Certificate (NOC) is required for foreign tourists, which also deters tourism. Federal and provincial governments’ conflicts further hinder tourism efforts.
Maldives’ new tourism slogan “The Maldives – Always Natural” promotes luxury tourism through media platforms, websites, and brands. In the case of Pakistan, although progress is occurring, most of us are still unaware of our tourism slogan, “It’s beautiful – it’s Pakistan.” Moreover, there is no public and foreign or local stakeholders’ involvement while designing tourism-linked policies. This leads to a lack of interest in the industry and decreases in our maritime potential.
According to research, countries with visa restrictions reduce the bilateral flow of travelers by around 60 percent and reduce, on average, the bilateral flow of exports and foreign direct investment by about 25 percent (Artal-Tur, Pallardo, & Requena, 2016).
Due to Pakistan’s political, economic, and security apprehensions, it provides visas upon arrival to only 24 countries, while 175 countries can apply for electronic visa facilities. In the Maldives, a tourist visa is granted to citizens of all nations on arrival (“Tourist Visa,” n.d.). So, the condition of a pre-approved visa for foreign tourists in the Maldives was uplifted. Thus, we see that our visa policy also affects our potential for maritime tourism.
The tourism sector in Pakistan has also remained disturbed over the last two decades due to the country’s involvement in the War on Terror. Tourist attractions in coastal areas are affected due to security concerns as the security firms do not allow the public to visit the coastal regions at Ormara and Pasni. The underlying reason is mismanagement and lack of coordination between government and security agencies.
Furthermore, border issues with neighbors, like the Sir Creek dispute with India, deter Pakistan’s maritime tourism potential. In the case of the Maldives, it is an isolated country with a more secure environment than Pakistan and manages to draw millions of tourists every year.
The Republic of Maldives attracts FDI (foreign direct investment) through marketing and strategies. Private investors are wooed by schemes to invest in tourism, e.g. owners investing $250,000 are eligible for a five-year resident visa. Through the Ministry of Tourism, the state’s government invited investors, local and foreign, to bid for 16 out of the planned 28 islands in the country. Such steps further attract investment to boost maritime tourism.
In Pakistan, there are no firm marketing efforts to attract private investors. Also, investors do not come to Pakistan due to the prevailing justice system. Any dispute regarding landholding takes years to resolve. If an investor decides to invest in land property, there is a possibility that the land title might be disputed. The title dispute ends in court, and it takes years to hand out a decisive decree (Usman & Rehan, 2021).
Similarly, if a shareholder is robbed of his shares, the court can take up to eight years or more to resolve such issues. This demotivates foreign and small private investors from investing in the land and promoting tourism-related projects. Then again, the interference of political elites in the tourism industry also deters investment in the country.
Tourism Institutes and Policies
The 1st master plan for tourism in Pakistan was introduced in 1967, but it primarily recognized environmental considerations rather than tourism. From 1967 till 1990, when the National Tourism Policy of 1990 was announced, no national-level policy attempts were made for tourism development (Dawn, 2007).
Though UNESCO’s Master Plan for Mohenjo Daro Preservation, 1972, and several other projects were established, the convergence of resources and expertise through integrated planning and cooperation was never sought at the policy level (Dawn, 2007). Then the National Tourism Policy of 1990 was announced with several goals. It stressed the government to ensure the preservation of the environment and proposed educational programs for creating awareness and conservation efforts.
The setback of the policy was that it did not appear to be enough to take care of tourism development. It revolved around environment preservation and failed to recognize tourism as a significant contributor to the economy, capable of producing mass employment opportunities, alleviating poverty, and positing Pakistan as a global brand qualified for capitalizing on increasing international travel and trade exchange opportunities. The stated objectives of the Tourism Policy 1990 were not completely accomplished either.
The Maldives achieved global tourism success through a thorough product-based approach based on four Tourism Master Plans (TMPs), the first of which was introduced in 1983. The significant aspect of the First Tourism Master Plan was the development of basic infrastructure for tourists and institution expansion, meaning that The Department of Tourism & Foreign Investment forged into Tourism Ministry in 1988 (Fatima & Akhtar, 2021).
While in Pakistan, after a gap of 11 years, the government announced a tourism policy in 2001 with a major highlight. According to it, tourism would continue to be treated as an industry, and the federal and provincial governments will have to bring all legislation in agreement with the demand of the tourist industry (Dawn, 2007). However, the government apparently drafted this policy in extreme haste, and it looked vague. Even the entire policy was unavailable on the Ministry of Tourism’s website—developed at the cost of 5 million rupees.
In the second TMP of the Maldives, public investment was encouraged by introducing the Tourism Law 1998, and the shares of resorts were sold to the citizens to increase the lease span. Duty exemption was also introduced on construction materials and capital goods for the development of resorts. There was facilitation for public-private sector investments and the development of the Disaster Preparedness Plans (DPP) (Fatima & Akhtar, 2021).
In the case of Pakistan, there was large-scale importing of equipment and products for water sports activities as they were not manufactured locally. Thus, their prices were very high, and the customs duty further elevated them. The entrepreneurs also face issues in NOC attainment.
In Pakistan, the federal government emphasized the significance of the maritime tourism industry when development was introduced in Section–VI of the National Maritime Policy 2002. However, the 18th Amendment altered the industry’s federal context. After the amendment, power was devolved to provinces, and no clarity was provided regarding the institutions in charge of maritime tourism.
In the case of Sindh, the tourism policy has not been approved since 2014. Thus, things could not move in the right direction for policy improvements in Balochistan and Sindh to harness Pakistan’s maritime tourism potential. Security concerns, natural disasters, inadequate infrastructure, and relatively poor education are the main reasons why tourism in Pakistan’s coastal areas did not flourish.
Maritime tourism in Pakistan has not yet reached the desired pace despite many opportunities. If we first look at the strategies employed by the Maldives, then it will be easier for Pakistan to develop the coastal industry by following similar strategies.
Talking about the Maldives, the third master plan (2007-2011) incorporated plans for the further development of resorts. Also, the time period for leases was extended (up to 99 years) to develop houses (Fatima & Akhtar, 2021). Under the fourth TMP, the Maldives Marketing & Public Relations Corporation (MMPRC) was established. Luxury tourism facilities were introduced to attract private investors, and future marketing tools were also publicized.
Thousands of tourists visit the Maldives annually. This is the chronology of those four master plans due to which tourism in the Maldives flourished and the islands became one of the ideal distinctions in the world.
|Timeline||Legal Framework for Tourist Facilities||Incentives for Public||Outcomes (GDP)|
|1972-1982||No proper legal and institutional measure.||No firm incentives for private investment were provided.||Facts not available|
|First Tourism Master Plan (1983-1992)||– Formation of Ministry for Tourism |
– To avoid congestion on the island, the Ministry of Tourism allowed the construction of building heights compatible with natural vegetation.
|No||Facts are not available|
|Second Tourism Master Plan (1996-2005)||– Maldives Tourism Promotion Board |
– The Maldives Tourism Act: Law No. 2/99
– Spatial Development Policy
– Maldives Tourism Department Corporation (MTDC).
– Tourism Emergency Operations Centre (TEOC)
– Disaster Preparedness Plans (DPP)
|– Under MTA, the government offered incentives to people who bought resorts and leased them for a more extended period. |
– Exemption of import duty.
– For resort development, duty exemption on capital goods was provided by the government.
|Third Tourism Master Plan (2007-2011)||– Formalized an exclusive legal analysis framework|
– Article 8 stated that for tourist resort development, land and islands must be leased for a maximum period of 25 years.
|– Up to 99 years extended leases provision |
– MTA provided proper information and guidelines for island leasing and infrastructure development.
|Fourth Tourism Master Plan (2013-2017)||– Maldives Marketing & Public Relations Corporation (MMPRC)|
– Effective, efficient, vibrant, and sustained future marketing strategic tools
– Four airports operationalized
– Increased recruitment of local employees from 11,000 to 19,000.
|– Surfing, luxury safari boats, cruise operations|
– A proper marketing budget was allocated
– 45% to 50% increase in local staff ratio
– Occupancy increased from 73 percent to 85 percent.
In addition to the TMPs, the Maldives government published the National Strategy for Sustainable Development in 2009 by collaborating with the United Nations Environmental Program. Because of such strategies and plans, there is a clear difference in the influx of tourists, which is constantly increasing over time as noted below (Fatima & Akhtar, 2016).
|Year||Number of Tourists|
Tourism & the National Policy of Pakistan
The National Tourism Policy (NTP) of 1990 guaranteed the tourism industry incentives and concessions to boost the tourism sector (PTDC, n.d.). NTP also provided an eight-year tax holiday for the projects launched between 1990 to 1995. Moreover, the concessionary loan financing which had previously been restricted to the north was also expanded throughout Pakistan, including the coastal areas (except the cosmopolitan jurisdiction of Karachi). Private sector operations under the policy included charter flights, tourist helicopters, and small planes.
Under the policy, provision of the law was formalized for a 72-hour transit to multiple entry visas and work permits lasting 4-5 years and private sector operations were allowed to lease government-owned facilities (PTDC, n.d.). In 2007, the government imposed 5% customs duty on the special equipment, which discouraged tourism during the reconsidering of NTP 1990.
Under Section VI of the National Maritime Policy 2002, the federal government focused on the maritime sector and its infrastructure development. The National Maritime Policy 2002 was expanded to promote marine sports on behalf of NTP 1990. After the 18th Amendment, which gave provincial autonomy, the tourism sector became a bone of contention. Due to such bottlenecks and other factors, such as the post-9/11 security situation, the tourism sector could not develop as it should have.
Latest Developments of Pakistan’s Government
- Federal Cabinet revised the visa policy and allowed foreigners from 190 countries to make a three-month visit and double stay under Case No. 123/06/2019. Individuals and groups of around fifty countries are now provided with visas on arrival (The News, 2019).
- On March 12, 2019, the federal government approved the establishment of the National Tourism Coordination Board (NTCB) to facilitate tourism through coordination and consultation with all provinces. The NTCB is accused of liaising with various national and international private investors to boost Pakistan’s economy in the region (Ahmed, 2019). To promote the tourism sector in Pakistan’s economy, these exceptional marketing and promotion strategies will also focus on technical assistance to the provinces.
- The chief minister of Sindh, Syed Murad Ali Shah, recently inaugurated the renovated Minora Beach after completing the 650 million rupees “Waterfront Development in Manor Beach” project (Tunio, 2021).
Recommendations and Conclusion:
- NTCB, at the federal level, must devise a compact and inclusive “Maritime Tourism Strategic Plan” and roadmap in consultation with the provincial governments of Balochistan and Sindh (Ullah, Khan, & Haq, 2022). The Maldives also periodically developed a master plan for tourism, which played a crucial role in flourishing tourism.
- Before finalizing the Maritime Tourism Strategic Plan, a specific study of the tourist site and land-use projects is required because every place has unique features and importance.
- Since the 18th Amendment, the 1990 National Tourism Policy has no longer been effective. There is a dire need to inspect current policies and institutional agendas hindering the development of maritime tourism.
- Establish a Maritime Tourism Board as a regulatory and coordination body among various bodies and develop its legal framework for a one-window system for an efficient and dynamic mechanism
- An emergency response cell needs to be set up for tourists in coastal areas to deal with any emergency/crisis.
- An entrepreneurship development program should be developed to help improve the community-based business of local level entrepreneurs (LLEs). ARY Laguna is a great example of private investment.
- Imports of equipment for water sports activities should be duty-free, and incentives should be provided to encourage investment. Local-level development of such equipment should also be encouraged so that the cost is less, and job opportunities are also provided to the locals.
- Strict policies for pollution and environmental protection should be enforced. The government should take the necessary steps to control pollution through law enforcement. If immediate steps are not taken to save beaches, Gwadar and the newly formed beaches will soon be in the same situation as others.
- Determine the feasibility of several other tourist destinations as part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
- Build coastal highways as well as sub-facilities such as mobile/internet coverage, fuel stations, and service stations to help promote maritime tourism.
- For the development and promotion of coastal tourism in Pakistan, the government must learn from India and learn from what it did in Kerala; infrastructure development, such as road access, electricity, and water supply, must be the primary focus. For motels, guesthouses, tourist villages, water sports activities, and beach games, an effective and efficient marketing strategy and allocating adequate budgets for small and medium investors is needed.
- Social media influencers and tourist vloggers should be welcomed. They are the best tools for promoting destinations. We must create a soft image globally because Pakistani leaders’ specific security problems and political immaturity spoiled our image internationally.
- The government should use platforms such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and ASEAN member countries to promote tourism.
- Pakistan has a vast religious tourism potential in Karachi and Balochistan because the holy sites of Muslims, Buddhism, and the birthplace of Sikhism are present in the country. So, there must be a focus on religious tourism (PTDC, n.d.).
- Government must develop one or two model tourist sites that match the international standards. Some of these sites are following which after some development can compete with the world standards.
|Locations||Tourism Activities||Form of tourism|
|Hawks Bay and Sandpit Beach, Karachi.||Mazaar-e-Quaid, restaurants, water sports activities, shopping malls, motels, restaurant cruises, green turtle watching||cultural, religious/recreational and adventurous tourism/eco-tourism|
|Menora Island Beach and the beach near Mubarak village||Sandy Beach picnic spot, model tourist village, lighthouse, guesthouses, water sports||Recreational and adventurous tourism|
|Lasbela district, Gadani, Balochistan, and Somiani||Paradise Point, Gadani ship-breaking yard, guesthouses, Gadani Fish Harbor, Somiani Spaceport, fishing||Recreational/ cultural/educational tourism, eco-tourism|
|Kund Malir, including Ormara Area (Ramsar Site) and Princess of Hope (near Buzipass), Gwadar||Leisure activities, water sports, restaurants, fascinating and charming natural rock formations, model tourist village, hot air balloon rides||Recreational tourism/eco-tourism|
|Jiwani and Makran Coast, Balochistan||The historical airport used in World War II, Victoria Hut with a scenic viewpoint, water sports||Ecotourism and adventurous tourism|
Pakistan performed well in its tourism sector in the last century but the unfortunate global events and particularly the post-9/11 situation led to a downfall in the industry. Now, as Pakistan is shifting its focus from geo-politics to geo-economy, it is essential that proper policies are drafted, and infrastructure is built for the successful development of maritime tourism.
Lessons should be learned from the Maldives which became a leading tourist destination through its efficient planning and successful execution. The government of Pakistan needs to remove the bottlenecks hindering coastal tourism and divert resources to establish the coastal tourism industry and spread its soft image globally.
- Ahmed, W. (2019). PM gives go-ahead to tourism coordination board. The Express Tribune. https://tribune.com.pk/story/1928853/pm-gives-go-ahead-tourism-coordination-board
- Artal-Tur, A., Pallardo, V., & Requena, F. (2016). Examining the impact of visa restrictions on international tourist flows using panel data. Estudios de Economia 43(2). 265-279.
- Dawn. (2007). “Time To Review Tourism Policy” https://www.dawn.com/news/272143/time-to-review-tourism-policy.
- Fatima, N. and Akhtar, M. (2021).“Maritime Tourism: Global Success Stories and the Case of Pakistan.” Polaris Journal of Maritime Research.
- Pakistan Tourism Development Corportation (PTDC). (n.d.) Pakistan Tourism. https://tourism.gov.pk/publications/NEWSLETTER_PTDC.pdf
- Tanvir, M.H. (2021). The Untapped Potential of Tourism in Pakistan. Paradigm Shift. https://www.paradigmshift.com.pk/pakistan-tourism-potential/
- The News. (2019). Highlights of Pakistan’s ‘New Visa Policy’. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/423795-highlights-of-the-new-visa-policy
- Tourist Visa. (n.d.). Maldives Immigration. https://immigration.gov.mv/tourist-visa/.
- Tunio, H. (2021). CM Murad inaugurates ‘Manora Waterfront Beach’ in Karachi. The Express Tribune. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2327082/cm-murad-inaugurates-manora-waterfront-beach-in-karachi
- Ullah, Z., Khan, J., & Haq, Z. (2022). Coastal Tourism And CPEC: Opportunities And Challenges In Pakistan. Journal of Political Studies.
- Usman, M., & Rehan, A. (2021). Coins and gavels. Dawn. https://www.dawn.com/news/1644786.
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